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American Gvt exam 1

Chapters 1-3 Exam 1 Review

TermDefinition
Politics The process by which actions of government are determined
Public Policy What government decides to do or not to do; government laws, rules, or expenditures
Democracy Government system in which the citizens have political power; citizens elect leaders to represent them; citizens have basic rights and liberties
Totalitarian Regime There are no limits on the power and authority of rulers; rulers have all power
Pathways to Action The activities of citizens in American politics that affect the creation, alteration, and preservation of laws and policies
Checks and Balances Each branch has the power to limit the actions of the others
Capitalism An economic system in which a country’s business and industry are privately owned with little governmental interference
Socialism An economic system in which government owns and controls most factories and much or all of the nation’s land
Representative Democracy Citizens elect leaders through a fair process to represent them and carry out business of government on their behalf
Authoritarian Regime System of government in which leaders have no formal or informal restraints but are limited by informal structures like religious groups or military leaders
Constitutional government A system of government that has both informal and formal restraints on exercise of power
Mayflower Compact The first form of rules governing the people in Plymouth in 1620
Great Squeeze British Parliament wanted to regain money lost from the French and Indian War so they taxed their colonists heavily ie. Stamp Act, Sugar Act
Natural rights Peoples’ basic rights ie. Right to fair trial, right of speech
Social Contract Theory A theory that says that individuals give up some rights in return for securing freedoms. If government breaks contract, it is means for revolt.
Shay’s Rebellion Uprising in 1786-1787 by small farmers angry about high debt and tax burdens; helped bring about the Constitutional Convention
Constitutional Convention A meeting in 1787 in Philadelphia where delegates from the colonies created the Constitution
Virginia Plan A strong national government with bicameral legislation, a national executive, judiciary, and legislative, and representation based on population
Sharing of Powers Each branch is partly dependent on each other for carrying out duties while also having their own specific powers
Bill of Rights The first ten amendments to the Constitution
Federalists Supporters of the ratification of the constitution
Federal System A government that divided power between a central government and regional subunits
McCullough v. Maryland Before the civil war, Maryland implied a tax on all banks but James McCullough refused to pay it; court decision defined the respective powers of the state and federal governments
Dual Federalism Theory stating that the powers of the federal and state governments are strictly separate, with interaction often marked by tension than cooperation
New Deal Programs designed by FDR to bring economic recovery from the Great Depression
Cooperative Federalism A system where the powers of the federal and state governments are intertwined and shared
Sovereignty The exclusive right of an independent state to have supreme and base absolute power over a region and it’s people
Block Grants Money given to states that allow substantial discretion to spend the money with minimal federal restrictions
Doctrine of Nullifcation The state governments had a right to rule any federal law unconstitutional and therefore null and void
Necessary and Proper Clause Constitution grants congress the power to pass all laws “necessary and proper” for carrying out expressed powers
Created by: moo_30
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