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Reconstruction and the West

13th Amendment Abolished Slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime
14th Amendment Adopted in 1868 as one of the Reconstruction Amendments
15th Amendment Prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizens race or previous condition of servitude
Freedmen's Bureau Established in 1865 by Congress to help millions of former black slaves and poor whites in the south in the aftermath of the Civil War
Sharecropping a form of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of crops produced on their portion of the land
Scalawags Southern whites who cooperated with Carpetbaggers and new Republican government.
Carpetbaggers Northerners who went south after the Civil War. They became involved in economic interests, as well as the Republican Party.
Black Codes laws passed in south with the intent of restricting African Americans freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or debt. Ex. race was defined by blood, employment was required of all freedmen
Jim Crow laws State and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the South
Ku Klux Klan (post civil war) Dedicated itself to an underground campaign of violence against Republican leaders and voters in effort to reverse the policies of Radical Reconstruction
Radical Republicans Members of the Republican Party who were dedicated to emancipation of slaves and later to the equal treatment of freed blacks
Literacy Tests (for voting) Part of the voter registration process and used to deny suffrage to African Americans
Segregation The action of setting someone apart from other people
Plessy vs Ferguson A landmark decision by the U.S. Supreme Court which upheld the constitutionality of racial segregation laws for public facilities as long as they were equal in quality
Transcontinental Railroad 1,912 mile railroad that connected the existing eastern U.S. rail network at Omaha with the Pacific coast.
Barbed Wire (impact) Created by Lucien B. Smith in 1867. A type of steel fence that contains sharp points arranged at intervals along the strand
Dawes Act Authorized the President to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians.
Wounded Knee A massacre that happened on December 29, 1890 near Wounded Knee Creek on Lakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota.
Sand Creek Massacre A massacre in the American Indian Wars in 1864, when a U.S. volunteer cavalry attacked a village of Cheyenne and Arapaho people in Colorado territory
Homestead Act Several laws in the U.S. that an applicant could acquire ownership of government land or the public domain.
Cowboys (cattle industry) People who migrated west and adopted aspects of vaquero culture including their clothing style and cattle-driving methods
Plains Indians Native American tribes who first lived on the Great Plains. They were resistant to the U.S. and Canadian government and military forces.
Battle of Little Bighorn (Custer's last stand) an armed engagement between combined forces of the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes and the 7th cavalry regiment of the U.S.
Created by: haleigh.criswell