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Reconstruction

Reconstruction in the west definitions

TermDefinition
13th amendment "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction."
14th amendment state action, privileges & immunities, citizenship, due process, and equal protection
15th amendment granting African-American men the right to vote,
Freedmen's Bureau an agency of the War Department set up in 1865 to assist freed slaves in obtaining relief, land, jobs, fair treatment, and education.
Sharecropping tenant farmer who gives a part of each crop as rent.
Scalawags a white Southerner who collaborated with northern Republicans during Reconstruction, often for personal profit.
Carpetbaggers a person from the northern states who went to the South after the Civil War to profit from the Reconstruction.
Black codes Statutes passed by pro-slavery, Southern states of the USA before and after the Civil War, to limit the civil rights of slaves or freed slaves.
Jim Crow laws a series of racist laws and measures that discriminated against African-Americans.
Ku Klux Klan (post civil war) goals included the political defeat of the Republican Party and the maintenance of absolute white supremacy in response to newly gained civil and political rights by southern blacks after the Civil War
Radical Republicans Republican favoring drastic and usually repressive measures against the southern states in the period following the Civil War.
Literacy tests (for voting) an examination to determine whether a person meets the literacy requirements for voting, serving in the armed forces, etc.; a test of one's ability to read and write.
Segregation the enforced separation of different racial groups in a country, community, or establishment.
Plessy vs Ferguson upheld the rights of states to pass laws allowing or even requiring racial segregation in public and private institutions such as schools, public transportation, restrooms, and restaurants.
Transcontinental Railroad In 1862, the Pacific Railroad Act chartered the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific Railroad Companies, and tasked them with building a transcontinental railroad that would link the United States from east to west.
Barbed wire (impact of) limited the open range and in turn limited the freedom of ranchers and cowboys. Barbed wire had a major impact on the many settlers and nomadic Native Americans living in the west.
Dawes act authorized the federal government to break up tribal lands by partitioning them into individual plots.
Wounded Knee An 1890 massacre left some 150 Native Americans dead, in what was the final clash between federal troops and the Sioux.
Sand Creek Massacre in 1864, peaceful Southern Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians are massacred by a band of Colonel John Chivington’s Colorado volunteers at Sand Creek, Colorado.
Homestead Act Signed into law in May 1862, the Homestead Act opened up settlement in the western United States, allowing any American, including freed slaves, to put in a claim for up to 160 free acres of federal land.
Cowboys (cattle industry) The longhorn cattle were kept on an open range, looked after by cowboys called vaqueros.Texan farmers claimed the cattle and set up their own ranches. Beef was not popular so the animals were used for their skins and tallow.
Plains indians member of any of the Native American peoples inhabiting the Great Plains of the United States and Canada.
Battle of Little BigHorn (custer's last stand) fought on June 25, 1876, near the Little Bighorn River in Montana Territory, pitted federal troops led by Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer (1839-76) against a band of Lakota Sioux and Cheyenne warriors.
Created by: summer.perkinswc