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Airframe O&P Review

Airframe, Prepware, etc.

What are 3 types of Aircraft Fabric Coverings Cotton, Synthetic, Glass Fabric
What must be done if an aircraft is to be re-covered with Synthetic fabric, instead of original Cotton? What is the reference data? 1) Submit a form 337 2) STC
What type of rib lacing cord is recommended for Cotton fabric? Waxed Linen cord
How wide should the surface tape be on the trailing edge of a wing? 3 inches
Why is surface tape notched on trailing edges? If the tape lifts off, it will tear off at a notch, instead of lifting the entire strip up (and creating drag)
Should a sewed seam run span-wise, or chord-wise Chord-wise is recommended, both are permissible (lacing runs chord-wise down rib)
What kind of seam is preferred in machine-sewn fabric? French-Fell seam
What is used for inter-rib bracing? (To protect the structure) Cotton reinforcing tape (under the stitch)
What knot is used for locking (finishing) a stitch? Modified Seine-Knot
What determines the spacing of the stitching on a wing? The Max-Speed of the aircraft
When is Finishing tape applied during the doping process? After the Second coat of dope has dried, then doped again after application.
What kind of repair can be done to a 14" L-shaped tear in a wing? Under what conditions? A doped-on patch may be applied, IF the aircraft's max speed is <150mph.
How often must a stitch be locked (knotted)? Every 8-10 stitches
How much can the strength of a fabric deteriorate before it must be replaced? 70% of the original required-strength
When is Anti-Tear tape required? When the aircraft has a max speed over 250mph.
During the doping process, when is a drainage grommet applied to the wing? Same time as finishing tape, after the second dope coat
What test gives an "approximate" indication of the strength of the fabric? FAA Approved Fabric-Punch test
Why is the structure "dope-proofed" before doping? Prevent fabric from sticking during doping
What is used to treat Cotton/Linen fabric to protect from mildew? A Mildew-cide is applied with the first coat of dope
Why is clear varnish used to treat wooden structures? To allow inspection for any rot/decay
Why is retardant used during doping in humid conditions? To slow the drying process and prevent blushing
How thick should a coat of wash-primer be on Aluminum Alloy structures? Thin enough to still see metal underneath
What can be used to aid paint-remover in having the most effect? Cover with poly-ethylene sheeting to prevent evaporation
When mixing epoxy paints, is converter added to resin, or resin to converter? ALWAYS converter to the resin
What can be done to correct blushing? Thin misting of 1 part retardant, 2 parts thinner. Allow to dry If no effect, then dope must be sanded
How can you remove a vinyl-decals on aluminum alloys? Soak with MEK or Cyclohexanone, and when soft, scrape with plastic scraper
What must be done before sweeping up a paint room with dry dope/laquer overspray? Wet it down; static electricity could light it on fire!
What happens if dope is over-sprayed onto enamel? The thinner in the dope causes enamel to swell
3 types of primer that may be used when painting Zinc-Chromate (Green), Wash (acid-etching), Epoxy
2 Basic types of dope used on fabric aircraft Nitrate dope, Butyrate (CAB) dope
What dope is used on heat-shrunk polyester fabric? Non-taughtening Butyrate dope (don't want any pulling the fabric, it's already taught)
What type of thinner used with Zinc-Chromate primer? Toluol/Toluene thinner
3 Characteristics of a sheet-metal patch 1) Must transfer the stress across the patch 2) Must restore lost strength/rigidity of original piece 3) Must not alter aerodynamic characteristics
On a sheet metal repair, which is stronger: The Shear strength of the Rivet The Bearing strength of the Sheet The Bearing strength should be greater, but should be close to eachother
Throatless shears are used for what? Cutting irregular curves in sheet metal Mild Carbon Steel up to 10 gauge Stainless Steel up to 12 gauge
What can a Slip Roll former be used for? Simple curves with a large radius (Think tube bender, bends sheets in one direction)
What is Bend-Allowance? Amount of metal that is used in the bend itself
What determines minimum bend radius? The Thickness of the material, and the material being used (hardness)
What is Setback? The distance the break must be set back from the mold line to form the bend
Why are lightning holes flanged? To give it rigidity
When forming concave curves, where should you start bending? Start at the edges, move around and inward
For drilling stainless steel, should the drill be turned fast or slow? Slowly
Minimum rivet edge distance 2x rivet diameter
Recommended Transverse Pitch for multiple rivet rows .75 x Rivet pitch (Row spacing)
How do you determine whether to dimple, or countersink flush rivets? The thickness of the metal (can't countersink if not thick enough)
What type of metal should be hot dimpled? 7075-T6 or 2024-T81 Aluminum or Magnesium Alloys
What kind of repair can be made to a small-damage honeycomb, single-faced composite sheet? Potted-Compound repair (Minimum damage to honeycomb, replaced, and can be filled with compound.
Twist drill for drilling transparent acrylic Cutting edge should be zero-rake, 140 deg.
What is anodizing on aluminum alloys? A protective oxide coating, applied using an electrolytic process
Why is TIG preferred for Steel welding over Acetylene? Minimizes warping/distortion
2 Types of Electrical Resistance Welding Spot and Seam welding
Acetylene is unstable above what PSI? 15 psi.
3 Types of Acetylene Flames, and how to identify each Carburizing (Reducing) - Feathery, smoky Neutral - Both cones line up Oxidizing - Loud hissing, longer thinner cone
What is used as the electrode in TIG Welding? Tungsten wire (Think TIG = T for Tongue)
What kind of solder is used for soldering electrical wire? 6040 Resin-Core Solder
What shape of flame for Gas-Welding Aluminum? Soft Neutral Flame
What is an acceptable line pressure for Acetylene welding? 5psi (Acetylene unstable above 15psi)
What kind of flame for Gas-Welding Steel? Slightly Carburizing flame
What is meant by a Soft Flame? Slow gasses, doesn't make any noise, doesn't blow the puddle out
How long must a fuel tank be purged before welding? At least 30 minutes with live steam, soaking in hot water, or with an inert gas (Nitrogen or CO2)
What is the purpose of a Servo Tab? It is an installed tab that produces aerodynamic force to aid the pilot in moving a control surface
Why do most Aerodynamic aircraft use Slotted Flaps? Allows for greater deflection of airflow before the air separates
What is the purpose of movable Slats on the leading edge? At High AOA, it drops forwards to keep smooth airflow over the wing, and delay the stall. (Like slots but without the hole, and movable)
Why must the leading edge of supersonic wings be kept free of dents/damage? Dents can cause normal shockwaves directly in front of the wing, which slows air behind it going over the wing. Normally, oblique shockwaves form farther back on the wing, allowing supersonic air over the wing.
Can a 100hr. be overflown? Under what conditions? Yes, by no more that 10 hrs IF to the place where it is to be inspected. Any time over 100 hrs is subtracted from next 100 hrs.
Can an Annual be overflown? If so, under what condition? No , unless with a Special Flight Permit (Ferry Permit).
What conditions require an aircraft to have a 100hr. inspection? If operating for hire, or Flight Instructing for hire.
Difference between 100 hr. and Annual Inspections Inspections are nearly the same, but Annual can only be signed off by IA
What Federal Regulation requires the use of a Checklist during an Inspection? 14 CFR Part 43.15 (Additional Rules for Inspections) *(Appendix D is part of this Section - Inspection items)
List the Appendixes for 14 CFR Part 43 Appendix: A) Major Repairs/Alterations and Preventative Maintenance B) Recording Major Repair/Alterations D) Inspection Items for Annual/100hr. Inspections E) Altimeter Testing/Inspection F) ELT Testing/Inspection
What takes the initial shock of landing in an oleo strut? The Fluid
What takes the shock of taxiing in an oleo strut? The Air
Is a strut filled with fluid while compressed or extended? Compressed (Otherwise over serviced, will be stiff and won't bounce)
How does a brake Debooster work? It decreases hydraulic pressure (by increasing area/volume) just before the brakes to give better control over braking.
Probable cause of spongy brakes? Solution? Most likely air in the system, system must be bled
Where do you find proper inflation pressure for aircraft tires? Aircraft Service Manual (MM)
What is purpose of Compensator port on the Master Cylinder on Aircraft Brakes? What could happen if it fails? Opens the brake reservoir to the wheel cylinders when brakes are off, bleeds off extra pressure (which would cause sticky brakes from built-up pressure)
What could happen if Master Cylinder Compensator port failed? The pressure wouldn't be opened to the reservoir, so pressure could build in the line, and cause sticking/dragging brakes.
What does the system Shuttle Valve do in a Hydraulic Braking System? It shuttles hydraulic pressure between Main and Emergency braking system in case of failure.
How does an Anti-Skid system operate? Anti-Skid sensor on wheel detects rate of Deceleration in the wheel, relieves brake pressure momentarily to prevent a skid.
What are two main types of hydraulic fluid used in modern aircraft? Mineral Based, Phosphate-Ester
What does an Unloading Valve do in a Hydraulic System? (aka) Pressure Regulator Shunts fluid from the pressure side of the pump, back to the reservoir when system pressure is reached
What does an Accumulator do in a Hydraulic System? Holds pressure on fluid in the system for when demand is great. Uses Air/Nitrogen pressure on a diaphragm to push on the fluid.
Where are quick disconnects usually found in an Aircraft Hydraulic System? In the lines for the Engine Driven Pump *Prevent air/debris from entering system, and keeps fluid in!
What is a Single Action Hydraulic Actuating Cylinder? Cylinder that uses hydraulic pressure to move linearly in one direction, is returned with a spring.
What is used to control the speed of a piston in a Pneumatic Actuator A Variable Orifice
What is used to flush a system that uses Skydrol? Trichlorethylene (Think: Sky = Tri)
What is used to flush a system that uses Mineral-Based Fluid? Naptha, Varsol or Stoddard Solvent (Think: Alphabet, M before N for Naptha)
Two ways to pressurize a hydraulic reservoir Bleed air, or Aspirator (in fluid return line)
What does a Snubber do when installed between the gauges and hydraulic pump? Reduces fluctuations in the gauge
How do smaller pressurized aircraft get pressurized air for the cabin? The Turbocharger
What is the ISOBERIC setting on a pressurization system? Maintains a set pressure regardless of altitude
What is Pressure Differential in a pressurization system? Maintains a set difference between interior and exterior pressure
What is the Safety Valve in a pressurization system? Prevents cabin pressure from exceed max allowable differential pressure
Two types or Air-Condition systems that may be installed Air-Cycle and Vapor Cycle systems
Where does cabin heat come from on large aircraft? Warm compressor bleed-air
Where does a combustion heater get its fuel? Aircraft Fuel Tanks
What happens to the warm used air from the aircraft cabin? (In a Vapor Cycle System) It is cooled in the evaporator, then pumped outside the aircraft
Where does cold air come from in a Vapor Cycle system? Warm cabin air is blown across the evaporator, and is cooled by the refrigerant.
Why do air Cycle systems need water-separators? Rapid cooling of air in expansion turbine will cause condensation fog. Moisture is mostly removed before entering cabin.
What are two types of refrigerant used in Vapor Cycle systems? Freon (Refrigerant 12), or environmentally friendly R-134A
3 Ways Oxygen can be carried on an aircraft Compressed Gas, Liquid, or Chemical Reaction
What TYPE of Oxygen suitable for Aircraft use? Aviator's Breathing Oxygen (Dry)
What is used to check for Oxygen leaks? Non-Petroleum based leak fluid (specially made)
What must be printed on an Aircraft Oxygen bottle? DOT Identification, Manufacture Date, Date of Hydrostatic Tests
What must be performed after any maintenance on a pitot/static system? Leak and pressure checks
Where can you find range markings for a particular aircraft's instruments? TCDS
Why must an instrument panel be grounded? Carries return current from electrical instruments into the aircraft structure
Swinging a compass corrects for what error? Deviation (Errors induced by the aircraft's own magnetic fields)
What fluid is used in a Magnetic Compass? Clear fluid similar to kerosene
Max allowable deviation error allowed for installed magnetic compass +- 10 Degrees
Max allowable drop during Pitot/Static Pressure Test for Unpressurized vs. Pressurized Aircraft Unpressurized: 100 ft/1 minute Pressurized: No more than 2% the equivalent altitude max differential pressure, or 100ft/1 minute, whichever is greater
What is the probable cause of an Electric Oil Temp indicator pegging high? A short in the temp-sensing bulb circuit. An open would read infinite resistance, and resistance is temperature.
Why is the Duel Tachometer used on Rotorcraft? One needle is Rotor Speed, the other is Engine RPM. When they're married, the clutch is not slipping, and the rotor is solidly engaged to the engine.
In what units are Turbine Engine Tachometers? % of Takeoff RPM
What is used as a Flowmeter in small Horiz.-Opposed Injected engines? Pressure drop across the fuel nozzles
What frequency band is used for most aircraft communications? Very High Frequency (VHF) 30 mhz - 300 mhz
What frequency band does VOR equipment use? Very High Frequency (VHF) 108.0 mhz - 117.95 mhz
What's the preferred location for VOR Antenna? Top of the aircraft, along the centerline of the fuselage
What ILS component shares an antenna with the VOR? The Localizer
What frequency band does the DME operate? Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) 962 mhz - 1024 mhz 1151 mhz - 1213 mhz
What's the preferred location of DME Antenna? Bottom of the aircraft, along the centerline (As FAR from other antennas as practical)
On what frequency is the Marker Beacon signal transmitted? 75 mhz
What are the Marker Beacon Light Colors? What do the mean? Blue - Outer Marker Amber - Middle Marker White - Inner Marker
In what frequency band are aircraft Long-Range communications? 2 mhz - 25 mhz
What two frequencies does ELT transmit on? 121.5 mhz 243 mhz (Double the normal frequency)
What 3 ILS Components are installed on an aircraft? Localizer, Glideslope, and Distance (Marker Beacons, DME, etc.)
What kind of antennas do VHF communications use? Whip Antennas (vertically polarized)
What kind of antennas do Transponders use? UHF Stub (Shark fin)
What kind of conductor is used to connect VHF/UHF antennas to equipment? Coaxial Cable
What kind of antennas do ADF systems use? Directional-Loop antennas, or Non-directional-sense antennas
What could cause a brake to stick in an anti-skid system? A failed Anti-Skid valve (Toggles hydraulic pressure to both sides of the brake when sensor detects a skid)
What are the landing-gear indicator lights and their meaning? Green - Gear down and locked Red - Gear in transition (Unsafe) No indication - Gear up and locked
What's another name for the Gear Safety-Switch? The Squat Switch
What are the types of fuel tanks in use? Integral, Bladder (Also Rigid)
What are 3 uses of a Centrifugal Boost-Pump in an aircraft fuel tank? 1) To produce fuel pressure for starting 2) Prevent vapor lock @ high altitudes 3) Transfer fuel between tanks
What is a Compensating Engine-Driven fuel pump? Pressure relief valve is acted on by atmospheric pressure. Varies the amount of fuel pressure to keep it higher than the Carburetor Intake Pressure
What is the purpose of Engine-Driven pump bypass valves? The booster pump will bypass the engine-driven pump if it fails, and during starting.
What characteristic of the fuel is measured by a Mass Fuel-Flowmeter in a Turbine engine? The Density
What is a Drip Gauge used for on a large turbo-jet aircraft? Allows the pilot to gauge how much fuel is in the tank from under the wing
If generator output cannot be monitored, what is the max % of output that the electrical load can use? 80%
What does a Small-Aircraft Alternator use as a rectifier Assembly? 6 Silicone Diodes
When replacing Copper wire with Aluminum wire, what is the general rule about gauge size? Use 2 gauge sizes larger for the Aluminum Wire (Ex: 6 Gauge copper = 2 Gauge Aluminum)
What's the smallest wire size Aluminum wire that can be used on an aircraft? #8 gauge
What 3 things must be matched when paralleling generators? Frequency, Phase, and Output Voltage
What provides air pressure for Deice Boots on a Recip Aircraft? The air pressure pump for the gyro instruments
What is a Wet-Pump vs. Dry-Pump? A Wet pump uses engine oil to lubricate steel vanes, A Dry pump has carbon vanes that do not require lubrication
What Mixture is used to deice aircraft? A Mixture of Isopropyl-Alcohol, and Ethylene-Glycol
What extinguishing agent is best for both cabin and engine fires? Haon 1301
Major disadvantage of using CB extinguishers? The residue is corrosive for Aluminum and Magnesium structures (Think C for corrosion)
Why is Carbon Tetrachloride (Tetrachloromethane) not recommended to extinguish fires? (aka) Halon-104: It creates a deadly toxic gas when exposed to flames
What is used in High-Discharge extinguishing systems on most aircraft? Halogenated Hydrocarbons, pressurized with Nitrogen
What happens in the engine when the Fire T-Handle is pulled? Hydraulic/Fuel is shut toff, the generator field is disconnected, H
What 3 extinguishing agents are used for Cabin Fires? Water, CO2, Halogen
What 2 types of smoke detectors are used in an aircraft? Visual and Photo-Electric
How are CO2 extinguisher checked for proper charge? They are weighed
What are the 2 colors of Extinguisher Blowout-Discs? What do they mean? Yellow - System manual activated Red - System Thermal Discharge
How can you identify Laminated wood? Parallel grain construction
Can you substitute Solid wood spars with Laminated? If so, when? Yes, if the same quality wood is used in both
Does a cantilever wing use any external bracing? No
What does compression failure look like in wood structures? Bucking of the fibers, appearing as faint streaks at right angles to the grain
What does glue deterioration look like? Joint separation, with only an imprint of the wood left
Are mineral streaks allowable in wood? If so, when? Yes, if careful inspection fails to reveal any decay
What does Fabric Rejuvenator do? Restores the condition of dope coatings, not the fabric itself
How would you repair an L-shaped tear with 14" long legs? Curved needle, waxed thread. Start at center, baseball stitches every 1/4" to ends. Remove dopes with thinner/acetone, dope on a patch that extends at least 1.5" past all tear edges.
How many layers in a French-Fell seam? 4
2 factors for selection of fabric weight on aircraft NE speed, and max wing-loading
On what kind of fabric does Moisture, Mildew and Chemicals have no effect on? Glass Fabric
How far is aircraft fabric allowed to deteriorate in terms of strength? 70% of the original strength for that GRADE of fabric (not the original fabric itself)
What two methods are used for Dope-Proofing structures? Aluminum foil, and Cellulose tape
Which topcoat is the most durable and chemically resistant? Polyurethane
If Wash Primer is unhydrated when applied, then painted over, what can occur? Corrosion under the paint (Filiform)
Can old wash primer coats be covered with Acrylic paints? With Epoxy paints? A touch-up coat of primer is needed under Acrylic paints, but not with Epoxy paints. Epoxy can be painted right over any spots.
Adverse Humidity, drafts, or sudden temp changes can cause what in an aircraft finish? Blushing
What is the primary use of Aluminum-pigment dope? To reflect UV rays from damaging the fabric
What TSO for strength requirements must safety-belts conform to? TSO C22
What can you test the metal with to distinguish between aluminum and aluminum alloys in 2xxx series? 10% Caustic Soda Solution (Causes copper to form a dark spot in alloys)
2017 and 2024 are what kind of rivets? Icebox Rivets
Should reamers be backed out? Or drilled the same direction? Turn only in cutting direction while pulling out the drill
General rule for finding proper rivet diameter 3x the thickest sheet being riveted
Cabin upholstery must at least be what? Fire Resistant
General rule for finding proper rivet length 1.5x diameter + material thickness (rivet must stick OUT of material by 1.5D)
What does rivet tipping look like? Groups of consecutive rivet heads will be tipped in same direction, caused by major skin deflection
Is the coin tap test the most accurate way to test for delamination? No, it can give a quick indication of damage, but not the extent of the damage
General rule for minimum edge distance 2x Rivet SHANK Diameter
Created by: avandermey
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