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Key terms to know for the ESL (and SEI?) MTEL

Semantic map
CALLA Cognitive Academic Lang Learning Approach; provide CI; content primry focus & lang. skills develop'd as needed; give info var. ways & model processes; cooperative learning struc's; auth & hands-on; self-evaluate lrning & strategy use; apply to own lives
Conversational repair strategies (def)
Conversational repair strategies (examples)
Semantics (definition) Meaning of sent W/O the context; relations of wds to interpreters of them; ONLY meaning from grmmr/vocab, NOT implied meaning (think lawyer)
Inflectional Suffix doesn't change part of speech (ex: boy/boys)
Derivational Suffix changes part of speech (ex: work/worker)
Syntax (definition) Sentence stucture
Syntax (components) word order; grammatical function of words; simple/compound,/complex sent's
Semantics (components) lexical (word-level); phrasal (sentence-level); denotation (NOT connotation); homonym/homophone/homograph
Pragmatics connotation; how language is used in real life; inferring; incl. non-verbal communication
Compound Sentence has 2 independent clauses *of equal syntactic value* (Jane was hungry, so she ate.) Remember FANBOYS
Complex Sentence has an independent & a dependent clause
Language Aquisition mostly passive;
Behaviorism Theory SKINNER; bhvr reinforcement: associating words w meanings & positive outcomes
Innatist Theory CHOMSKY; children born with Universal Grammar aka Language Acquisition Device; automatically know how to combine nouns & verbs to make new sentences
Social Interactionist Theory VYGOSTSKY; we learn language via nature AND nurture;
SocioCultural Theory childs observe adults communicating 1st and then develop own skills; learn best through cooperative problem solving
Communicative Competence (definition) a learner's ability to use lang to communicate successfully
Communicative Competence (components) Grammatical knowledge of: Syntax Morphology Phonology Social Knowledge How/when to use lang. appropriately
Stages of 2nd Language Acquisition 1)Preprod- silent pd 2)Early prod- lim. compr; yes/no; 1-2 wd; 1000 3)Spch emerg.- more compr; sht phrs/simpl sent's; 3000 4)Interm flncy- Xclnt compr; min. grmmr errs; complete sent's; 6000 5)Adv flncy- convrst'n; complete & complx sent's
Learning/Acquisition Hypothesis KRASHEN; learning= lvls 4-5; conscious process studying rules/vocab; lvls 4-5 Acquisition= lvls 1-3; subconscious; reqr's meaningful interaxn in TL w spkrs concerned w content/message, not form; Stu's can acqur lang at same time as lrn content if CI
Monitor Hypothesis KRASHEN; device to monitor spkr's output; internal self-editing; K says can hinder acquisition process; better for when fluency established; not for ELD 1-3
Natural Order Hypothesis KRASHEN: acquisition of grmmr struc's follows natrl order: -present & past progressive, then plural conjugations, etc -possesives often last, as rules can be more complx
Fossilization loss of progress in SLA. ex: -mistake spkrs know is wrong but keep making (in spite of correxn) -error from habit made subconsciously -learned wrong & need to change but keep making mistake -error spkrs make when focused but still make on own
Positive & Negative Transfer +: transfr commn lang rules from L1 to L2; useful when similar pttrns btwn 2 langs; ex: cognatesstrong L1 skills necessary -:overgeneralization; false cognates
Interlanguage when L2 spkr not fully but nearing proficient in TL; holds onto some ftrs of L1 or overgeneralizes L2 rules; spkr still btwn 2 langs; can fossilize
BICS Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills; "surface" list/spk skills; typical acqu'd quickly; everday, fam. vocab; sch & context *embedded* lang used frequently; non-academic times; native-like fluency in ~2 yrs
CALP Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency; acad lang aX sch & prof settings, incl mult. registers; cope w academic demands aX various subj's; content-specif. & tech. vocab; complx sent struc & extnded discourse; formal lang; ~5-7 yrs
Common Underlying Proficiency Cummins; fnd'tn for dev'mnt of L1 & L2 skills>> central operating sys w lang. skills & implicit metalinguistic knwldge; Xferring knowldg; L1 knwldg helps make CI for L2; suppts idea that being 2lingal is cogntve advntg>>CONTINUE L1 DVLP; iceberg analogy;
Task Difficulty (components) Context-embedded; Context-reduced; cognitively demanding + context reduced; pg 90 image
Context-Embedded Task S has access 2 range of vis. & oral cues; ex: illustrations, can ask ?s, etc; face-to-face convo w friends
Context-Reduced Task Listen 2 lecture or reading txt w no other sources of help except lang. itself; ex: close reading; social convo over phone
Cognitively Demanding + Context-Reduced Most difficlt, esp for early L2 spkrs; ex: MCAS, math wd prob w/o manipulatives & visuals, retelling story w/o organizer & wd bank
Grammar Translation Method students learn grmmr rules and apply them to translate L1<>L2; better suited for literature & intellectual development; traditionally used for greek & latin
Direct Method Reaxn to GTM; begin w dialogue; info presented w axns or pics; L1 NEVER used; ?s asked/answered in L2; grmmr &cultr taught inductively; verbs conjugated later; txts not analyzed grmmtically
Audiolingual Method based on SKINNER's bhvrism; sys of reinforcement; drills, etc; repetition & restatement
Communicative Approach goal=authentic Xaction btwn stud's; S's given tasks to complete in L2; functional develpmt; more S-centered; help develp communicative competence in auth. contexts; ex: role-playing, interviews; build bridge btwn academics & real-wrld tasks
Natural Approach says S's acqur L2 same way as L1, thus lang. learn. shouldn't be forced;
Content-Based ESL Natural approach + theme; early speech @ slow & natural pace; focus on comm over form; best 4 beginners; Tchr creates situat'n to practice lang around interests of S's; classrm calm & stress-free
SDAIE Specially-Designed Academic Instr. in Eng; parent of SIOP; *frqunt opp's for S's to talk*; clarify in L1; re-present info in many forms; 1)All S's can learn 2)All have lang 3)Self-concept tied to lang, -> L1 need 2b used sometimes
SIOP 1)Planning 2)Build background 3) CI 4)Var. tch & lrning strat's 5)XACTION! 6)Checklist/rubric, esp for writing; students must be engaged ~90% of the time
LEA Lang. Experience Apprch; best for lvls 1-3 & SWD; small-grp or indiv; T writes S's oral wds exactly, only correcting spelling, then leads S thru correcting grmmr mistakes
Language Objectives Prepare for vocab & grmmr you shld pre-teach, review, &/or assess for S's to master Content; Content objctive = WHAT to know, Lang objctive = HOW will show what learned; Lang objctives can be embedded in Content objctives Pages 112 & 113!
WIDA Levels (in order) EEDeb! 1)Entering (~pre-prod) 2)Emerging (~early prod) 3)Develping (~speech emergnce) 4)Expanding (~interm. fluency) 5)Bridging (~adv. fluency)
WIDA-Entering/Beginning Wds/phrs/chunks of lang; yes/no answrs; single wds 4 ideas; commands, wh- ?s, declaratives); Phrs pttrns from common situations; limited but gen., everday vocab
WIDA-Emerging Phrs/short sent's; formulaic, repetetive grmmr structr aX content ares; soc. & instr. wds/phrs: can I go to the BR. I need a pencil. etc)
WIDA-Developing Short & some Xpanded sent's; can engage in clssrm convo's; Xpanded Xpressn of 1 idea or emerg. Xpressn of mult. ideas; repetitive w occ. variation; spcfic & occ techn. content wds
WIDA-Expanding Shrt, Xpanded, some complX sent's; organized Xprssn w emerg. cohesion; var'ty grmmr struc's; consistent use of conventions; sent pttrns spcfc to content areas; wds/phrs w mult. meanings aX cont areas; idioms
WIDA-Bridging/Advanced mult, complx sent's; organzd, cohesive, coherent Xprssn of ideas; var'ty of grmmr struc's/sent pttrns, matched to purpose; nearly consistent use of conventions, including for effect; techn'l & abstrct content-lang; wds/phrs w precise meaning; *confidence
Cooperative Group Structures
Distinctions/Types of ELLs (Immigration types) Immigrant - Push/pull factors? Hopes/fears? Refugee - Trauma/PTSD? Migrant - Transitory. How often moved? Ethnic minority - Cult. unassimilated. Build on identities they bring! Sojourner - Temporary stay. Temp visa/work
Distinctions/Types of ELLs (Academic types) Newcomers:<2yrs in US. Silent pd. but absrbng. SIFE: >2yrs of gaps in ed (sLife <2). Need litcy & mth. Long-term ELL - most life in US; 2ling/Eng dom. Struggle all areas. BICS>CALPS. Dropout! Grade-lvl/Adv Content Knwldge: G/T SWD:No eval<2yrs
Intercultural Communication
Productive Language vs Expressive Language?
Factors that Impact Oral Language Development Personality - Risk taker? Age - Earlier = better (Dis)ability - Spch/lang delas possible. Assess L1 to check.
Readers Theater
WIDA Speaking Rubric?
Automaticity Fast, effortless word recognition that comes with a great deal of reading practice. Necessary but not sufficient for fluency.
Prosody Expressiveness in reading; incl. timing, phrasing, intonation, & emphasis. Signals that readers are paying attentionto what they are reading AND can use brain to think abt txt while reading it.
Inferential Comprehension
Tier 1 Words
Tier 2 Words
Tier 3 Words
Language to Preview Before Reading
Language to Teach During Reading
Language to Teach/Review After Reading
Four Components in Reading Programs
Semantic Cues Meaning cues; Does it make sense? use bkgrnd knwldge & context; keywds/familiar wds; sent. b4 & after; reread and summarize chunks
Syntactic Cues Structure cues; order/struc; Does it sound right? Inflectional cues (-ed, etc); Pay attention to POS, ex: "warm regions" -> warm is adj, so regions prob noun
Reciprocal Teaching
Guided Reading Xvention to suppt sml grp w decoding/comprhnsion strat's; ex groups: same decoding skill, same rdng lvl, same comprhnsn skill, S's struggl w inferential thinking; typclly 20-30 mins 3x wk
Running Record
Reading Inventory
Miscue Analysis
Features of Fiction
Features of Nonfiction
Complex Sentence Reading Deconstruction
Types of Fiction Graphic Organizers
Semantic Map
Concept Map
Word Splash
Brainstorming Web
KWL Chart
Story Map/Plot Diagram
Sequence Chart/2-Column Notes
Character Analysis Map
Top-Down Web
Anticipation Guide
Types of Nonfiction Graphic Organizers
Cycle Map
Anecdotal Records
Leveled Text
Steps in Writing Process
R.A.F.T. Writing
Language Control (from WIDA rubric)
Functional Approach to Writing
Language Experience Approach
WIDA Writing Rubric (components)
Criterion-Referenced Tests Summative; fixed set of pre-determined critera/standards; ex: unit test, reading benchmarks, MCAS, METEL=
Norm-Referenced Tests Bell curve; ranks; compares to peers; ex: IQ, SAT, Woodcock-Johnson
Factors to Consider when Assessing ELLs Linguistic distance btwn L1 & L2; Family litcy/edu; prior schooling; family mobility; SES; time in US; trauma; affective filter
Created by: zacmea
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