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Gram Neg Cocci


Aerobic GN Cocci/coccobacilli Acinetobacter, Moraxella spp, Neisseria, Pasteurella
Anaerobic GN Cocci/coccobacilli Veillonella spp, Kingella kingae
Can survive on both moist and dry surfaces for long periods; they are important nosocomial pathogens Acinetobacter
Normal flora in oropharynx of small percentage of population; can increase in large numbers in hospitalized patients Acinetobacter
Clinical syndromes include sinusitis, OM, suppurative conjunctivitis & bronchitis Moraxella spp
Less important Neisseria spp frequently colonize _______ Human upper respiratory tract; anogenital mucosa
N. gonorrhoeae & N. meningitidis unique virulence factors LOS (similar to LPS) functions as endotoxin; pili; outer membrane proteins
Action of N. gonorrhoeae & N. meningitidis outer membrane I I (porin): enhance intracellular survival
Action of N. gonorrhoeae & N. meningitidis outer membrane II II (opacity): mediates attachment to host epithelial cells
Action of N. gonorrhoeae & N. meningitidis outer membrane III III (reduction-modifiable): prevents cidal action of serum
Grows optimally at 37 degrees C in presence of small amount of CO2 N. gonorrhoeae
Asymptomatic women provide reservoir for infection (transmission of _________ can occur perinatally) N. gonorrhoeae
2 percent of infections disseminate to blood, skin, joints (knees in females) N. gonorrhoeae
10 percent of population colonized; disease spread by direct contact or respiratory droplet Neisseria meningitidis
Meningitis develops as result of hematogenous spread; is endemic in 0-5 year olds, peaks again in late adolescence Neisseria meningitidis
Transmission is zoonotic (via bite, scratch, or licking of open wounds) Pasturella multocida
GN anaerobic cocci; infections rare in immunocompetent hosts Veillonella spp
Infections rare but usually serious (osteomyelitis, meningitis, & endocarditis) Veillonella spp
GN anaerobic coccobacilli; normal flora of human oropharynx Kingella kingae
Infections most commonly involve the femur, talus or calcaneus (also lower respiratory tract , blood stream & heart valves) Kingella kingae
“Plump” coccobacilli that are ubiquitous saprophytes Acinetobacter
Similar, in epidemiologic niche, to Pseudomonas and Enterobacter Acinetobacter
7 species; normal flora of oral pharynx Moraxella
catarrhalis most important species Moraxella
Moraxella virulence factors LPS (endotoxin), polysaccharide capsule, pili
Virulence factors include beta-lactamase production Moraxella
Family includes the genera Eikenella & Kingella Neiserriaceae
How many Neiserria spp found in humans? 10
Most important Neiserria spp found in humans (2) N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis
Extemely fastidious Neiserria spp (2) N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis
GN cocci; strict pathogens Neiserria
“Coffee beans” Neiserri spp
Small diplococci with flattened adjacent sides Neiserri spp
GN cocci capable of intracellular survival N. gonorrhoeae & N. meningitidis
Diagnosis now usually made by genetic amplification N. gonorrhoeae
GN coccobacillus; cats/dogs are natural reservoirs Pasturella multocida
Most common result of infection is osteomyelitis Veillonella spp
GN anaerobic cocci; normal flora of mouth, GI and female genital tract Veillonella spp
Small coccobacilli that resemble species of Neiserria Kingella kingae
First described in the 1960’s by Elizabeth King Kingella kingae
Created by: Abarnard