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Unit 2

U.S History-Standards 4 & 5

Benjamin Franklin an influential statesman, inventor, and scientist who published Poor Richard's Almanac; delegate from Pennsylvania & ambassador who secured alliance with France during Revolution
John Adams delegate from Massachusetts during the First Constitutional Convention; ambassador to the Netherlands during the Revolution & later second US President
John Jay President of the Continental Congress who helped negotiate the Treaty of Paris 1783; Federalist who wrote essays to support the ratification of the Constitution
George Washington delegate from Virginia and leader of the Continental Army during the revolution; later president of the Constitutional Convention & first US president
Thomas Jefferson delegate from Virginia during the first Constitutional Convention and primary author of the Declaration of Independence; later served as the third US President
Committee of Five group of people tasked with drafting a statement to represent the Continental Congress delegates’ decision to seek independence from Britain (Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, & Robert Livingston)
Declaration of Indpendence the ideological explanation for America's independence written by Thomas Jefferson
John Locke a British philosopher who believed that all individuals naturally possess certain rights regardless of status; developed Social Contract Theory
Natural Rights the right to life, liberty, and property that everyone is born with
Social Contract Theory People give the government power and in return the government protects people's natural rights. People have the right to overthrow an abusive government
Olive Branch a plea directly to King George III by the colonists’ Second Continental Congress in 1775 for negotiation to avoid armed conflict, which was ignored by the king
Continental Army Army led by George Washington that represented the colonies during the Revolutionary War
Patriots a person who wanted the colonies to become independent from Great Britain
Loyalists a person who wanted to remain loyal to Great Britain
Articles of Confederation the original US government from 1777-1787
Baron von Steuden a Prussian soldier who helped teach the Continental Army drill and fire tactics during the winter at Valley Forge
Marquis de LaFayette a French soldier who assisted in the professionalization and training of American forces during the winter at Valley Forge
Valley Forge location in Pennsylvania where the Continental Army spent a difficult winter in 1777-1778
Battle of Trenton A decisive victory where the American forces under Washington’s command routed the Hessians in a surprise attack on Christmas 1776
Battle of Saratoga 1777 Revolutionary War battle considered to be a turning point because a Patriot win convinced the French to ally officially with the US
Battle of Yorktown last battle of the Revolutionary War where the British surrendered to George Washington & the Continental Army
1783 Treaty of Paris treaty that ended the Revolution. The United States won its independence from Great Britain and gained possession of land stretching to the Mississippi River
Land Ordinance of 1787 a law that designed a system for managing and settling lands in the Northwest Territories
Northwest Ordinance of 1787 a law that established the method by which new territories would be admitted to the U.S. as states
Shay's Rebellion farmer's rebellion against high taxes in Massachusetts; showed the shortcomings of the Articles of Confederation
Constitution a document that establishes the setup of the U.S. government, which went into effect in 1788
Great Compromise a compromise that settled the debate between large and small states. It called for a bicameral legislature; each state will have equal representation in the Senate and representation based on population in the House of Representatives
Limited Governemt a principle stating that the government has only as much authority as the people give it, so its power is limited
3/5 Compromise a compromise that allowed states to count three-fifths of their slaves when calculating their entire population
Anti-Federalist opposed ratification of the Constitution because they believed the national government would be too powerful
Federalist favored ratification of the Constitution
The Federalist Papers essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison that laid out a series of arguments to persuade people to ratify the Constitution
Alexander Hamilton Federalist who believed in a strong central government that could stabilize the nation and economy
James Madison a Federalist known as the "father of the Constitution" who later became the fourth U.S. president
Bill of Rights the first ten amendments to the Constitution that protect individual rights
Created by: sdevans
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