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Gram Pos Rods (GPRs)

Microbiology

QuestionAnswer
Medically important aerobic GPRs (4) Bacillus; Corynebacterium; Erysipelothrix; Gardnerella
Medically important Bacillus species B. anthracis; B. subtilis; B. cereus; B. sterothermophilus
Where are Clostridium species found? Ubiquitous: soil, water; human GI tract
Medically important Clostridium species C. perfringens; C. tetani; C. botulinum; C. difficile
Human disease caused by C. perfringens ranges from _______ to __________ mild gastroenteritis to severe myonecrosis
Of the 6 Clostridium serotypes (labeled ____), type ____ is responsible for most human disease A - F (A, B, E & F cause human disease). Type A
Clostridium’s most significant virulence factors are known as _______ “lethal toxins”
Alpha-toxin (a lecithinase) is produced in large quantities by _____ type A strains of C. perfringens
3 clinical presentations of anthrax Cutaneous; gastroenteritis; inhalation
2 clinical presentations B. cereus Gastroenteritis (mediated by enterotoxins); ocular (trauma leads to rapid, progressive destruction)
Bacillus virulence factors Endospores; enterotoxins; B. anthracis has a capsule
Characteristic lesion formed in cutaneous B. anthracis infection Eschar
Etiologic agent of diphtheria C. diphtheriae
Species of this genus are collectively known as diphtheroids Corynebacterium
Small, thin rods that form long filaments Erysipelothrix
Small, paired coccobacilli (aerobic GPRs) Listeria
Erysipelothrix spp. associated with human disease E. rhusiopathiae
colonizes many animals, especially turkey, swine, fish Erysipelothrix
Systemic form of disease rare, usually endocarditis Erysipelothrix
Infections in humans usually zoonotic, cutaneous (more common among butchers, farmers, veterinarians Erysipelothrix
asymptomatic carrier state (1-5%) Listeria monocytogenes
Human disease transmitted by contaminated food (esp. unpasteurized milk); vertical, zoonotic Listeria monocytogenes
Restricted to distinct populations (neonates, elderly, pregnant women, cancer/transplant patients) Listeria monocytogenes
Listeria monocytogenes virulence factors Hemolysin; listeriolysin O; ability to survive in cold temperatures
Medically important anaerobic GPRs Actinomyces; Clostridium; Lactobacillus; Mobiluncus; Propionobacterium
Virulence factors include characteristic terminal endospore seen on Gram stain, hemolysin, and neurotoxin that blocks neurotransmitter release C. tetani
Anaerobic GPR divided into 4 groups (I, II, III, IV) which may represent 4 species C. botulinum
Most common agent of pseudomembranous colitis (aka antibody-dissociated colitis) C. difficile
Like MRSA, this anaerobic GPR has an increasing presence in community outpatient populations C. difficile
Common clinical presentations of Lactobacillus Transient bacteremia; endocarditis; opportunistic septicemia
Mobiluncus & Gardnerella classified as Gram positive because _______ Have a Gram pos cell wall; an antibiotic susceptibility profile similar to Gram + bacteria; lack endotoxin
Anaerobic GPRs that colonize female genital tract in large numbers Mobiluncus & Gardnerella
Microscopically, resemble “drumsticks” or “lollipops” C. tetani
Classification of (antigenically distinct) toxins produced by C. botulinum Types A-G
3 clinical presentations of botulism food borne; infant botulism; wound botulism
Etiologic agent of antibiotic associated colitis (AAC) C. difficile
virulence factors of C. difficile toxin A (enterotoxin); toxin B (cytotoxin)
Often recovered in urine specimens as a “contaminant” Lactobacillus
Normal flora of mouth, GI and GU tract Lactobacillus
Gram variable but classified as Gram positive Mobiluncus & Gardnerella
Medically important anaerobic GPRs colonize what areas? Skin and mucosal surfaces
Small anaerobic GPRs that on Gram stain appear in clumps or chains Propionibacterium
Predominantly anaerobic; some aerotolerant (gram +) Propionibacterium
Most medically important species of Propionibacterium P. acnes
Normal flora of skin, oropharynx, and female genital tract Propionibacterium
This encodes genes for lethal toxin (responsible for shock syndrome) and edema toxin (causing cutaneous edema) in anthrax Plasmid pX01
Encodes anthrax genes for capsule production (protecting bacteria from immune defenses) Plasmid pX02
Created by: Abarnard