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Unit 1

U.S. History -Standards 1-3

TermDefinition
Mercantilism An economic theory that the earth held a limited supply of wealth. Mother countries use colonies to acquire more wealth to become more powerful.
Navigation Acts A way for Britain to tax everything in the colonies. Goods transported on British ships, items go through British ports, and sent(exported) only to Britain.
Triangular Trade/Trans-Atlantic Trade Trade routes that the British took manufactured goods and human cargo to the American colonies. England --> West Africa --> Colonies
Indentured Servant free people who sign a contract to work for a set # of years to pay for their passage on a ship to the American colonies
Middle Passage the sea journey undertaken by slave ships from West Africa to the West Indies. -part of the triangular trade
cash crop a crop produced for its commercial (money) use not for food. Example: Tobacco, cotton, indigo, and sugar cane
Jamestown 1st permanent English settlement in the American Colonies
Virginia Company a joint-stock company established in 1606 to set up a colony for profit in the Americas
John Smith English explorer, soldier, and leader who helped keep the Jamestown colony alive by creating laws to ensure the welfare of the colony.
John Rolfe English settler who helped cultivate the tobacco plant in the Virginia Colony
Maryland Toleration Act a law mandating religious tolerance for different Christian Religions.
James Oglethorpe Founder of the Georgia Colony.
Puritans a religious group that wanted to "purify" the Church of England . This group settled the Massachusetts Bay Colony - John Winthrop
Pilgrims a religious group that wanted to separate from the Church of England. This group settled the Plymouth Colony- William Bradford
Mayflower Compact Document signed aboard the Mayflower. It was the 1st self-governing document in the Colonies
Metacom Native American that is responsible for a bloody conflict known as King Phillip's War. Marks the end of resistance of Native Americans in New England.
William Penn Founder of Pennsylvania. It was a safe haven for Quakers
New Netherlands founded by the Dutch. It was a money-making venture. Taken over by the British and later renamed New York.
self-government government under the control and direction of the inhabitants of a political unit rather than by an outside authority (Colonies making their own government instead of England)
Salutary Neglect when Britain allows the Colonies to self-govern themselves with little to no enforcement of British laws.
House of Burgesses the 1st legislative style government in the Colonies. Virginia
Bacon's Rebellion Nathaniel Bacon led a rebellion to overthrow the Virginian government to have stricter laws against Native Americans. Bacon wanted land the Native Americans were on.
Great Awakening a religious revival that challenged established authorities and called for Independence from the status quo.
French and Indian War War fought in the American Colonies where the British expanded into French owned Ohio River Valley.
1763 Treaty of Paris treaty that ended the French and Indian War, giving Britain all land east of the Mississippi River and Canada.
Proclamation of 1763 imaginary line that expanded the Appalachian Mountain chain that was a no pass zone. Mean to stop colonist from moving westward in to the Ohio River Valley and causing another war.
Stamp Act British tax on any printed item that affected everyone in the colonies. It was met with widespread anger.
Intolerable Acts in response to the Boston Tea Party. It closed Boston harbor, placed Massachusetts directly under the rule of the king, put soldiers into homes (quartering act), and sent British officials to England for trial.
Sons of Liberty created to counteract British taxes -- male based-peaceful but destructive. ex. Boston Tea Party.
Daughters of Liberty created to counteract British taxes-- female based-peaceful boycotts.
Committee of Correspondence written letters between colonies, informing everyone of what was going on in each colony. It was the first united effort against the British.
Tea Act tax on tea making British tea cheaper.
Boston Tea Party Sons of Liberty ran protest in which colonist threw over 300 chest of tea from British ship into the Boston Harbor
Townshend Acts a series of taxes that taxed goods imported to the American Colonies - ex. glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea
Thomas Paine English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary.
Common Sense a pamphlet by Thomas Paine that gave a clear, and logical explanation of why America should be independent that persuaded many colonist to support the cause of independence
Created by: sdevans