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SS 6th Grade 2018

By Aron Seluanov (2018)(Final Study Guide)

Culture The way of life of a group of people at a particular time including daily habits, beliefs, and arts.
Primary vs. Secondary Source (1)A firsthand account from somebody who was actually there; Ex: a diary. (2)Report of something that happened but not from someone who was there; Ex: a news article
Artifacts Objects made by someone in the past; these are studied by archeologists to learn new information about people from both prehistory and history. Ex: Otzi's bronze axe, an Apple 6s
Architecture How buildings are planned and made.
Legacies Something handed down from the past.
Civilization A culture that has developed systems of specialization, religion, learning, and government.
Technology The use of skills and tools to meet practical human needs.
Pre-history vs. History (1)Period of pre-written language forms of communication. Ex: Cave Art; shows how people lived... (2) is the period of written communication.
Specialization Training to do a particular kind of work.
Domestication The training or use of animals in ways that are useful to humans. Ex: Raising Sheep.
Ziggurat Large building with a temple on its peak.
Polytheistic Belief in many gods.
Monotheistic Belief in one god.
Hammurabi Babylon's king; known for being a very harsh ruler and setting up the world's first written set of laws. (AKA: Code of Hammurabi, which is best known as an eye-for-an-eye, a tooth-for-a-tooth set of consequences; crime will have an equal punishment for it
City State A self-governing city, often with surrounding lands and villages.
Ancient Sumer Group of city-states in Mesopotamia.
Fertile Crescent A fertile region in southwestern Asia that includes Mesopotamia; crescent shaped, rich soil; the land here was made fertile by the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.
Muhammad A merchant from Mecca who became prophet of the Islamic faith (circa 570 C.E.), which is a monotheistic religion that worships Allah (God).
Five Pillars These are the key beliefs of Muslims, which can be found in the holy text of the Qur'an: 1. A Muslim must state "There is no God but Allah" 2. 5 Daily Prayers 3. Give to the needy 4. Fast all day during Ramadan 5. Pilgrimage to Mecca at least once
Afterlife Life after death; much of Egyptian religion is focused on the it.
Silt A mixture of tiny bits of soil and rock carried and deposited by a river.
Social Pyramid A leveling of society from top to bottom, showing greatest power on top and least on bottom.
Surplus Having extra food or goods, to be able to save or sell.
Irrigation A way of supplying water to an area of land.
Barter Trading one good or service for another without the use of money.
Role of Pharaoh in Egyptian Culture Ruler worshipped as a god by people.
Heiroglyphics Egyptian system of writing made up of 800 picture signs.
Rosetta Stone A large black stone with writing on it with three types of writing- hieroglyphics, Greek, and demotic (A later form of Egyptian)
Tutankhamen Egyptian pharaoh who died at a young age. In 1922, archeologist Howard Carter discovered Tut's intact tomb, allowing the world to discover new knowledge about ancient Egypt.
Nile River Main river in Egypt, flows south to north, the longest river, with very rich and fertile soil.
Nile Delta Northernmost part of the river where the river flows into the Mediterranean Sea.
Mediterranean Sea Nile River flows into it; north of Africa, south of Europe; the body of water serves as a source of trade and transportation for those that live around it.
Subcontinent A large landmass that is connected to the rest of a continent.
Buddhism A religion founded by Siddhartha Gautama; most important thing in life is to reach peace by ending suffering; belief in reincarnation, the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path; belief in nirvana.
Hinduism A polytheistic religion founded in India; caste system; a universal spirit, Brahman; everyone has a soul and it will be reincarnated; a person's karma will determine the outcome of it; once you reach perfect peace you will not reincarnate anymore.
Siddhartha Gautama Ancient Indian religious leader known commonly as Buddha, 'Enlightened One'; founded Buddhism.
Indus River Valley Area where the Indus River is located between the Himalayas and Hindu Kush mountains.
Himalayas World's highest mountain range northeast of India.
Hindu Kush Mountain range northwest of India.
Pakistan West of India; ancient India would have controlled this region; the Indus River Valley runs through this country.
Chinese language system- How is it different from English? symbols/characters stood for objects and ideas
Oracle Bones Writings on bones that were fired until cracked, then the cracks were read to answer questions or tell the future.
Great Wall of China A man-made structure to the north of China that serves as a barrier for enemies that may want to enter China. The Qin emperor, Shi Huandi, extended the wall during his rule.
Confucianism A philosophy based on the ideas of Confucius that focus on morality, family order, social harmony, and government.
Shi Huangdi A self-granted 'nickname' that means 'First Grand Emperor', he split the empire of China into 36 provinces, let farmers own land, set up a single system of writing, law, and money.
Confucius Chinese philosopher who stressed the need to respect tradition; is teachings discussed the right and wrong uses of power (a leader needed to earn the respect of his subjects and, in return, subjects should be loyal.
Landscape of Greece (General Description): A group of islands and peninsulas; made of mountains and hills.
Oligarchy A type of government, most powerful citizens controlled decision making.
Main Values of The City-State Sparta Trained to be soldiers - boys, girls - sports.
Athenian Democracy- Who were considered citizens there, compared to the U.S.? In Athens no women or slaves had a voice in government, only free males were citizens and had voting rights.
Olympic Games-The original purpose- To honor the Olympians.
Homer and His Epic Poems (Iliad and The Odyssey) - Tells stories of war and adventures; very long poems; book-like.
Alexander the Great From Macedonia; took over Greece; taught by Aristotle.
Aristotle Famous philosopher.
Socrates Philosopher; to search for wisdom and the right way to live; encouraged others to question and not just to accept others thinking (known as the "Socratic Method")
Trial by Jury To be judged by peers.
Republic People vote for leaders to represent them; in the Roman Republic, only male citizens could have participated in the republic.
Christianity A religion based on the teachings of Jesus; as recorded in the New Testament; Old and New Testaments are sacred texts; belief in Holy Trinity; belief in eternal life after death in heaven or hell.
Four Reasons for the Fall of Rome Higher taxes; political corruption; size of empire; disease; and invasions.
Plebeians Roman citizens; men who were farmers, traded, or made things for a living.
Patricians Roman citizens; noble families; owned large farms.
Jesus Christ Known for being crucified on the cross and believed to have been resurrected from the dead.
Messiah Chosen son of God; Christians believe this is Jesus; Hebrews believe the messiah has not yet come.
Julius Caesar Born into a patrician family; as a boy became senate leader; later a great general - tried to make himself dictator of Rome.
Self-Sufficient Medieval Manor Village that produces it's own supplies and goods for their use *barter for goods and services *people pray at home or church (Highest to lowest) king-nobles-knights-craftsmen-peasants-serfs.
Egypt, Africa Legacies/ Key contributions of, Rosetta Stone, irrigation techniques, paper (papyrus), Bartering, Specialization.
Mesopotamia (Modern-day Iraq-Iran) Legacies/ Key contributions of, Code of Hammurabi, codes of law, monotheism, polytheism, Wheel, glass, irrigation techniques, written laws
India/Pakistan Legacies/ Key contributions of, Buddhism and Hinduism, metallurgy, Hindu-Arabic numerals, inoculations, astronomy, teachings of Gandhi.
China Legacies/ Key contributions of, Oracle Bones, single system of writing, fireworks, gunpowder, silk, sundial and seismograph, acupuncture, wheelbarrow.
Created by: DRACUL5



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