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Global Study Guide

Final Global Study Guide started on 6/10/18 with most important terms

Babur founder and first Emperor of the Mughal dynasty in the Indian subcontinent
Akbar third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605, was a patron of art and culture, hired Hindu’s of all castes for government jobs
Taj Mahal Akbar’s son, had it built for a tomb for his wife to be buried in
The British East India Company one of the longest-lived and richest trading companies. It exercised a pervasive influence on British colonial policy from early in its history because of its wealth and power both in England and in the rest of the commercial world
Zheng He chinese admiral who commanded seven expeditions in order to promote trade and collect tribute. Explored coast of South East Asia, India, The Red Sea, Persian Gulf, and East Africa
Ethnocentrism evaluation of other cultures according to prejudgement originating in the standards and customs of one's own culture
The Qing Dynasty “pure” to preserve the distinct identity, the intermarriage between Manchus and Chinese, Confusion system of government, promoted Chinese culture
Charlemagne in reign for 46 years fighting Muslims in Spain, Saxons in the North, Avars and Slavs in the east, and Lombards in Italy, he reunited much of the old Roman empire
Feudalism loosely organized system of government in which local lords governed their own lands but owed military service and other support to a greater lord
Feudal Contract exchange of pledges between lords and vassals
Tithe payment to a church equal to one tenth of a person's income
Papal Supremacy authority of medieval popes over all secular rulers
Canon Law body of laws of a church
Excommunication exclusion from the Roman Catholic Church as a penalty for refusing to obey church laws
Interdict in the Roman Catholic Church, excommunication of an entire region, town, or kingdom
Apprentice young person learning a trade from a master
Journeyman salaried worker who was employed by a guild master
Master person trained in the skill
King John angered his nobles with taxes and abused his power
Magna Carta forced to sign by King John, limits royal power in England, extends rights to the people
The Crusades a medieval military expedition, one of a series made by Europeans to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries
The Black Death ravaged Europe and killed a third of its population due to the plague which is caused by a bacteria transmitted to humans by infected rats
The Hundred Years War A war between France and England that lasted from the middle of the fourteenth century to the middle of the fifteenth. The kings of England invaded France, trying to claim the throne
Joan of Arc A French military leader of the fifteenth century, a national heroine who at the age of seventeen took up arms to establish the rightful king on the French throne. She claimed to have heard God speak to her in voices. Saint of the Roman Catholic Church
Constantinople the largest city and former capital of Turkey
Justinian Byzantine emperor who held the eastern frontier of his empire against the Persians; codified Roman law in 529
Hagia Sophia a 6th century masterpiece of Byzantine architecture in Istanbul; built as a Christian church, converted to a mosque in 1453, and made into a museum in the middle of the 20th century
Justinian's Code the collections of laws and legal interpretations developed under the sponsorship of the Byzantine emperor Justinian
Genghis Khan founder of the Mongol empire; was named this in 1206 after uniting the nomadic Mongol tribes
The Golden Horde the army of Mongol Tartars that overran eastern Europe in the 13th century, established a khanate in Russia, and maintained control there until the 15th century
The Mongols an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
Czar title of the ruler of the Russian empire
Ivan the Great the Grand Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of all Russia; He was one of the longest-reigning Russian rulers in history
Renaissance The cultural “rebirth” that occurred in Europe from roughly the fourteenth through the middle of the seventeenth centuries, based on the rediscovery of the literature of Greece and Rome
Patron person who provides financial support for the arts
The Medici Family an Italian banking family and political dynasty that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century
Humanism intellectual movement at the heart of the Italian Renaissance that focused on worldly subjects rather than on religious issues
Humanities study of subjects taught in ancient Greece and Rome, such as grammar, rhetoric, poetry, and history
Leonardo da Vinci Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect; the most versatile genius of the Italian Renaissance
Michelangelo Florentine sculptor and painter and architect; one of the outstanding figures of the Renaissance
Raphael Italian painter whose many paintings exemplify the ideals of the High Renaissance
Machiavelli wrote the political work “The Prince” in the 1500s, that encourages “the end justifies the means” behavior, especially among politicians
Vernacular everyday language of ordinary people
Johann Gutenburg German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press
Indulgence in the Roman Catholic Church, pardon for sins committed during a person’s lifetime
Martin Luther A sixteenth-century German religious leader; the founder of Protestantism; a priest of the Roman Catholic Church, began the Reformation by posting his Ninety-five Theses, which attacked the church for allowing the sale of indulgences
95 Thesis list of propositions for an academic disputation written in 1517 by Martin Luther; it was posted on the door of the Catholic Church
Excommunication exclusion from the Roman Catholic Church as a penalty for refusing to obey Church laws
Peace at Augsburg a treaty between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and the Schmalkaldic League
Henry VIII king of England in the early sixteenth century; established himself as head of the Christian Church in England, in place of the pope, after the pope refused to allow his marriage to Catherine of Aragon to be dissolved
The Counter Reformation the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation
The Council of Trent an inclusive council of the Catholic Church
The Inquisition a period of prolonged and intensive questioning or investigation
Nicolaus Copernicus Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center
Geocentric having or representing the earth as the center, as in former astronomical systems
Heliocentric the belief that the sun is the center of the universe
Galileo Galilei Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries
The Scientific Method method used to confirm findings and to prove or disprove a hypothesis
Isaac Newton English mathematician and physicist; remembered for developing the calculus and for his law of gravitation and his three laws of motion
Astrolabe an instrument used to determine latitude by measuring the position of the stars
Caravel improved type of sailing ship in the 1400s
Compass an instrument containing a magnetized pointer that shows the direction of magnetic north and bearings from it
Christopher Columbus Italian explorer responsible for the European discovery of America in 1492. He had sailed across the Atlantic Ocean from Spain, under the patronage of the king and queen, Ferdinand and Isabella, hoping to find a westward route to India
The Columbian Exchange the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas between the Americas and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries, related to European colonization and trade following Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage
Hernando Cortes Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico
Francisco Pizarro Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru
Encomienda System legal system by which the Spanish crown attempted to define the status of the Indian population in its American colonies. It was based upon the practice of exacting tribute from Muslims and Jews during the Reconquista of Muslim Spain
Atlantic Slave Trade Lasted from the 16th to the 19th century; Trade of African peoples from Western Africa to the Americas. One part of a three-part economical system known as the Middle Passage of the Triangular Trade
Absolute Monarch ruler with complete authority over the government and lives of the people he or she governs
Autocratic Rule a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control
Divine Right belief that a ruler’s authority comes directly from God
Phillip II king of Spain and Portugal and husband of Mary I; he supported the Counter Reformation and sent the Spanish Armada to invade England
The Spanish Armada a Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from A Coruña in late May 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia, with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England
Louis XIV known as “Louis the Great” and “the Sun King”; had the the longest reign in French history and was characterized by a magnificent court, the expansion of French influence in Europe, and the establishment of overseas colonies
Versailles A city of north-central France west-southwest of Paris. It is best known for its magnificent palace, built by Louis XIV in the late 1600s, where the treaty ending World War I was signed in 1919
The Glorious Revolution the overthrow of King James II of England by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III and Prince of Orange
The English Bill of Rights an act that the Parliament of England passed on December 16, 1689 that creates separation of powers, limits the powers of the king and queen, enhances the democratic election and bolsters freedom of speech
Thirty Years' War A war waged in the early seventeenth century that involved France, Spain, Sweden, Denmark, Austria, and numerous states of Germany. The causes of the war were rooted in national rivalries and in conflict between Roman Catholics and Protestants
Enlightened Despot absolute ruler who uses his or her power to bring about political and social change
Peter the Great A Russian czar of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries who tried to transform Russia from a backward nation into a progressive one by introducing customs and ideas from western European countries
Westernization adoption of western ideas, technology, and culture
Catherine the Great Empress of Russia in the late eighteenth century who encouraged the cultural influences of western Europe in Russia & extended Russian territory toward the Black Sea. She's known for her romantic intrigues, including affairs with members of her government
Warm water port port that is free of ice all year
Natural Law rule or law that governs human nature
Thomas Hobbes beliefs: absolute/no divine right; english materialist and political philosopher who supported absolute rule as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings
John Locke belief: natural rights; argued against the belief that human beings are born with certain ideas already in their minds. He claimed that, on the contrary, the mind is a tabula rasa (blank slate) until experience begins to “write” on it
Montesquieu belief: separation of powers; French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers
Voltaire belief: free speech; French writer, playwright, and poet; He was a leading figure of the Enlightenment, and frequently came into conflict with the Establishment as a result of his radical views and satirical writings
Adam Smith beliefs: free market, Laissez faire economics; “The Father of Economics” known for his theory of repay wage differentials, most famous for his 1776 book: "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations”
Printing Press created by Johann Gutenberg in the 15th century, advancement in technology, allowed text to easily be copied around the world (mass production of books)
Henry the Navigator from Portugal, royal prince, sent expeditions to West Africa to explore and to create maps of Africa, he wanted to spread Christianity, sent over 14 expeditions to Africa in twelve years, became involved in slave trade
Bartolomeu Dias nobleman of the Portuguese royal household where he explored the southern tip of Africa, sails for Portugal
Vasco da Gama reached India from Portugal sailing for the king to find an alternate route
Tudors A divine-right believing dynasty that recognized the value of having good relations with Parliament. Henry VIII and Elizabeth I were apart of this
Stuarts The ruling family of Scotland, they were relatives of Elizabeth I and took over in England when there was no child to take her throne. Stuart monarchs did not get along with Parliament, and they ended up breaking Parliament up. They broke many laws
Created by: kennykonigsberg
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