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Can vitamins be synthesized in the human body no
Two classes of vitamins water-soluble and fat-soluble
Fat soluble vitamins A,D,K,E
Water soluble vitamin classes b vitamins, folic acid and ascorbic acid (C)
B vitamins thiamine (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin (B3), Pantothenic Acid (B5), Pyridoxine (B6; pyridoxal; pyridoxamine), biotin (B7), B12 (cobalamine)
Sources of vitamins food intake and synthesis by intestinal microorganisms
6 ways to have vitamin deficiency inadequate dietary intake, inadequate absorption, inadequate use (inadequate conversion), increased requirements, increased excretion, drug-associated deficiency
thiamine cofactor/s, reaction/s, and disease/s thiamine pyrophosphate; pyruvate DH, alpha ketoglutarate DH, branched chain alpha keto acid DH; Beriberi
riboflavin cofactor/s, reaction/s, and disease/s FAD, FMN;oxidation-reduction;no disease
Niacin cofactor/s, reaction/s, and disease’s NAD, NADP; oxidation-reduction; pellagra
Pantothenic acid cofactor/s, reaction/s, and disease/s Coenzyme A; acyl transfer, pyruvate DH, alpha keto glutarate DH; no disease
What B vitamin can be made in small amounts in the body niacin (made from tryptophan)
Pyridoxine cofactor/s, reaction/s, and disease/s pyridoxal phosphate; transamination, decarboxylation, dehydration; seizure in infants
Cobalamin cofactor/s, reaction/s, and disease/s 5’-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, methylcobolamin; methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, 5’methylTHF homocys transferase; pernicious anemia and others
Folate cofactor/s, reaction/s, and disease/s tetrahydrofolate; 1 C transfer, dTMP biosynthesis, purine synthesis; megaloblastic anemia and others
Biotin cofactor/s, reaction/s, and disease/s no cofactors; carboxylation; no disease
Ascorbic acid cofactor/s, reaction/s, and disease/s ascorbid acid; hydroxylation (collagen); scurvy
Beriberi thiamine deficiency; mostly in areas that used polished rice; lethargy, weight loss, irregular heart rate, convulsions, death
Pellagra niacin deficiency; dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, death
Most common vitamin deficiency folic acid
Normal folic acid requirement 100-200 mg/day/adult (more for pregnant women)
Causes of folic acid deficiency inadequate intake, impaired absorption (intestinal diseases), impaired metabolism, increased demand
Diagnosis of folic acid deficiency ingest test dose of Histidine and test forminimoglutamate level in urine; if there is forminimoglutamate in urine, folic acid deficiency is present
Consequences of folic acid deficiency 7 weeks-nothing; 13 wks-formiminoglutamate in urine, altered read blood cells; 4 months-irritability, forgetfulness, anemia; upon addition of folic acid, everything normalized
Biochemical consequences of folic acid deficiency defective glycine cleavage (neurological problems), defective homocys (met conversion->neurological defects); defective purine/pyrimidine synthesis (DNA and hematopoietic defects)
B12 deficiency comes from impaired absorption
B12 storage up to 6 years in liver
B12 absorption parietal cell in stomach makes instrinsic factor (IF) which binds B12 and transports it to the ileum; transported in blood by TC (transcobalomine) which takes it to the liver
Pernicious anemia IF (intrinsic factor) deficiency through impaired absorption of B12
Affects of pernicious anemia impaired: regeneration of tetrahydrofolate pool, impaired purine/dTMP biosynthesis, hematopoietic defects, neurological defects
Neurological defects of pernicious anemia accumulation of methylmalonyl CoA intereferes with myelination of nervous tissue b/c methylmalonyl CoA is a competitor of malonyl CoA in FA synthesis
Treatment for pernicious anemia intramuscular B12 injection and folate supplement
N metabolism consequences of THF deficiency due to B12 deficiency defective: purine/pyrimidine synthesis, glycine cleavage
N metabolism consequences from direct B12 difficency defective: homocys->Met conversion, methylmalonyl CoA->succinyl CoA conversion
B12 and THF correlation B12 is necessary in THF regeneration
5 groupings of biosynthesis of non-essential AA 1)Ala, Asp, Glu, Gln, Asn 2)Arg, Pro 3)Ser, Gly 4)Tyr 5)Cys
alanine synthesis pyruvate transamination
aspartate synthesis oxaloacetate transamination
glutamate synthesis alpha ketoglutarate transamination
glutamine synthesis add ATP and NH3 to glutamate
asparagines synthetase add ATP and N to aspartate
Arginine and proline synthesis glutamate->glutamate semialdehyde->proline and arginine
Tyrosine synthesis phenylalanine hydroxylase; 3/4 of Phe in diet goest to Tyr
Cystein synthesis comes from cystathionine which comes from serine and homocysteine which comes from methionine; cystathionine goes to cysteine and alpha ketobutyrate
Serine synthesis 3-phosphoglycerate (phosphogylcerate) 3-phosphopyruvate (aminotransferase) 3-phosphoserine (phosphatase) serine
Glycine synthesis serine (serine hydroxymethyl transferase) glycine; the rxn uses N5N10methylene THF which becomes THF; THF returns to N5N10 through a rxn with another glycine
Almost all non-essential AA’s can be synthesized from glycolysis products
Created by: droid