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G3 WH review

After the fall of the Roman Empire which Frankish leader was able to briefly unify Europe and create a short period of scholarship? Charlemagne
What treaty divided Charlemagne's land? Treaty of Verdun
What institution provided unity and continuity during the Middle Ages? the Church
What is feudalism based on? land and loyalty
Who practices chivalry? Knights
List the feudal roles from top to bottom on the feudal hierarchy? Lord, Vassal, Knights, Serfs
What is the name for the land that was given as a thank you for a warrior's loyalty? fief or feud
Which feudal position was endlessly tied to the land? serfs
What is a guild? Guilds were established for different jobs to regulate economic life, set standards within a field, prevent competition and provide for members in need.
What two periods are the Middle Ages divided between? Dark Ages and Late Middle Ages
What are the Holy Wars more commonly referred to as? the Crusades
What land was fought over in the Crusades? Primarily present day Israel/Palestine
Who called for the Crusades? the Pope (various ones over time)
What was promised to the Crusaders by the Pope? Salvation and possible land
Who won most of the Crusades? Muslims (all but the first)
What are the key effects of the Crusades? Muslims no longer respected Christians New ideas spread to Europe New products were introduced to Europe: perfume, spices, silk, sugar, utensils, bathing, etc. Trade increased Size of towns and cities grew, esp. in Italy Banking came about
Where did the Black Plague initially begin? Southeastern Europe near the Black Sea
What were the negative consequences of the Crusades? Death est. 14 million food scarcity education, arts declined anti-semitism
What were the positive consequences of the Crusades? helped end serfdom capitalism grew middle class emerged
Excommunicate To prevent someone from participating in church life
Vassal Person who swears loyalty to a lord
Medieval From the Middle Ages
Magna Carta Agreement between King John of England and his nobles to limit thei hings power
Clergy People who serve the church
Fief Land given in exchange for service
Feudalism A system of power in Europe where kings and queens had the most power, then the nobles, knights and last were tahe peasants
Parliament Council that advises the king or queen of England on Government matters
Crusades Military expeditions to win control of the Holy Land from the Turks
Apprentice Unpaid worker being trained in a trade ( like carpenter, shoe maker
Manor Large estate owned by lord
knight a son of a noble who was a trained soldier
journeyman a finished apprentice who is now paid for his work
pilgrimage a journey to a holy place for a religious purpose
lord a noble in the middle ages
Why did medieval kings become more powerful in the 1200s? Nobles lost money, land, and power during the Crusades.
Why was Constantinople such a great location? It was more easliy defended, and it was at the crossroads of many "MAJOR" trade routes.
Who was Rome's first offical emperor? Octavian Agustus Caesar
During the Hundred Years' War, the English introduced which new weapon other than the longbow. cannons and gunpowder
What is the name of the system whereby the most qualified is hired used by the Chinese? The merit system
In Sub Saharan African cultures Gold was equal to ??____ in value salt
After Constantine died, the Roman Empire was divided into the Western empire and the ___. The Byzantine Empire
Which religion has 5 pillars of faith? Islam
What feature of Roman law most influenced our American system of government? Equal justice under the law.
Why does Rome eventually fall? Many reasons:invasions of the Barbarians, Corruption at the top, too large an empire, super rich and very poor, little loyalty among the troops, and the conquered citizens.
Who is Islam's most revered prophet? Muhammad
This allowed the Chinese to navigate, or pilot, and open seas without getting lost the magnetic compass
The bishop in Rome who claimed authority over all Christians took the title of .....? Pope
What was the relationship between the pope and other european kings and emperors. He told them that he answered to no "man" but to God only.
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