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Unit 4

The Early Antebellum

Revolution of 1800 Electoral victory of Democratic Republicans over the Federalists, who lost their Congressional majority & the presidency. The peaceful transfer of power between rival parties solidified faith in America's political system.
Marbury v Madison The Supreme Court case that established the principle of "judicial review".
Judicial Review The idea that the Supreme Court has the final authority to determine constitutionality.
Louisiana Purchase Acquisition of Louisiana Territory from France. The purchase more than doubled the size of the United States, opening vast tracts for settlers.
Lewis and Clark May 1804: 1st American expedition to cross the western portion of the U.S.
Embargo Act of 1807 Enacted in response to British & French treatment of American merchants, the act banned the export of all goods from the United States to any foreign port. The embargo placed great strains on the American economy, while only marginally affecting its Europ
Impressment Act of forcibly drafting an individual into military service, employed by the British navy against American seamen in times of war against France, 1793-1815. Impressment was a continual source of conflict between Britain and the United States in the ear
War of 1812 Fought between Britain and the United States largely over the issues of trade and impressment. Though the war ended in a relative draw, it demonstrated America's willingness to defend its interests militarily, earning the young nation newfound respect f
Treaty of Ghent Ended the War of 1812 in a virtual draw, restoring prewar borders but failing to address any of the grievances that first brought America into the war.
Era of Good Feelings Popular name for the period of one-party, Republican, rule during James Monroe's presidency. The term obscures bitter conflicts over internal improvements, slavery, and the national bank.
Nationalism Pride in one's country or culture.
Monroe Doctrine Statement delivered by President James Monroe, warning European powers to refrain from seeking any new territories in the Americas. The United States largely lacked the power to back up the pronouncement, which was actually enforced by the British, who s
Henry Clay's American System A three-pronged system to promote American industry. Clay advocated a strong banking system, a protective tariff and a federally funded transportation network.
Transportation improvements A series of nineteenth century transportation innovations—turnpikes, steamboats, canals, and railroads—that linked local and regional markets, creating a national economy.
Erie Canal New York state canal that linked Lake Erie to the Hudson River. It dramatically lowered shipping costs, fueling an economic boom in upstate New York and increasing the profitability of farming in the Old Northwest.
Lowell Mills 19th-century mills for the manufacture of cloth, located in Lowell, Massachusetts, that mainly employed young women.
Second Bank of the U.S. national bank organized in 1816
closely modeled after the first Bank of the United States, it held federal tax receipts and regulated the amount of money circulating in the economy. The Bank proved to be very unpopular among western land speculators and farmers, especially after the Pan James Monroe
Eli Whitney A mechanical genius who invented the cotton gin, which was machine that separated the cotton from the seed. This greatly improved efficiency, and the South was able to clear more acres of cotton fields, which also increased the demand for slaves.
"King Cotton" The American South
Second Great Awakening Religious revival characterized by emotional mass "camp meetings" and widespread conversion. Brought about a democratization of religion as a multiplicity of denominations vied for members.
Temperance A social movement against the use of alcohol, where people formed organizations against the production of beverages such as rum and whiskey.
Abolition The support for a complete, immediate, and uncompensated end to slavery.
William Lloyd Garrison was a radical who founded The Liberator, an abolitionist newspaper, in Boston in 1831. He advocated immediate, uncompensated emancipation and even civil equality for blacks. This made Garrison a famous and highly controversial abolitionist whose main tact
Frederick Douglas Former slave and abolitionist speaker who also supported women's suffrage at Seneca Falls.
Grimke Sisters were sisters who toured New England, lecturing against slavery, in 1837. They became controversial by lecturing to both men and women. In 1838 both sisters wrote classics of American feminism
Sarah wrote Letters on the Condition of Women and the Equality of the Sexes and Angelina wrote Letters to Catherine E. Beecher. Latin American revolutions OR European attempts to re-imperialize Latin America
Nat Turner Rebellion, 1831 Virginia slave revolt that resulted in the deaths of sixty whites and raised fears among white Southerners of further uprisings.
Seneca Falls Convention a women's rights convention held in Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848.
Declaration of Sentiments document signed by the majority of the people present at the Seneca Falls Convention, based upon the US Declaration of Independence, "grand basis for attaining the civil, social, political, and religious rights of women."
"Jacksonian Democracy" A political philosophy, based on his belief that common people were the source of American strength.
Democratic Party political party led by Thomas Jefferson, it feared centralized political power, supported states' rights, opposed Hamilton's financial plan, and supported ties with France. It was heavily influenced by a agrarian interests in the southern states believed
Whig Party political party that had no stand on slavery, was elected because people did not want to rock the boat and have war, An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats, stood for protective tariffs, nation
Know-Nothing Party Party that felt that too many foreigners were living in America, also known as the American Party. Named this way b/c when someone asked them about their party, they were supposed to reply "I know nothing"
Spoils System The Practice of appointing applicants to public offices as reward for their loyalty to political party in power. The term was derived from the phrase "to the victor belong the spoils of the enemy".
Sectionalism a devotion to the interests of one geographic region over the interests of the country as a whole, ultimately led to the Union's worst crisis: civil war between the North and the South in the early 1860s
Nullification Crisis Showdown between President Andrew Jackson and the South Carolina legislature, which declared the 1832 tariff null and void in the state and threatened secession if the federal government tried to collect duties. It was resolved by a compromise negotiated
John C Calhoun Vice President under Andrew Jackson, leading Southern politician, began his political career as a nationalist and an advocate of protective tariffs, later he becomes an advocate of free trade, states' rights, limited government, and nullification.
Missouri Compromise, 1820 a series of agreements passed by Congress in 1820-1821 to maintain the balance of power between slave states and free states.
Indian Removal Act of 1830 Ordered the removal of Indian Tribes still residing east of the Mississippi to newly established Indian Territory west of Arkansas and Missouri. Tribes resisting eviction were forcibly removed by American forces, often after prolonged legal or military ba
Trail of Tears of 1837 the marches in which the Cherokee people were forcibly removed from Georgia to the Indian Territory in 1838-1840, with thousands of the Cherokee dying on the way.
The Bank War Battle between President Andrew Jackson and Congressional supporters of the Bank of the United States over the bank's renewal in 1832. Jackson vetoed the Bank Bill, arguing that the bank favored moneyed interests at the expense of western farmers.
Created by: US1