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Gilded Age

period after Reconstruction (1877-1900)

Gilded Age the period after Reconstruction (1877-1900) which saw the INDUSTRIALIZATION and URBANIZATION of America
Gilded Age resulted in problems like political and mistreatment of workers
political machines PARTY organizations that controlled the big city governments and were famous for corruption and anti-democratic tactics
political machine most famous was Tammany Hall in NYC with "Boss" Tweed
graft use of a politician's position to gain wealth
URBANIZATION causes: immigrants provided cheap labor source; new agricultural technology
REAPER new agricultural technology that increased food production and reduced the number of farmers
New Immigrants Immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe (Russia, Italy, Polland) that flowed in after 1890; settled in cities and became factory workers
pull factors political and religious freedom (ex: Jews leaving Russia because of pograms);
New Immigrants encouraged cultural pluralism = the presence of many different cultures in one society
Chinese Exclusion Act law restricting the Immigration of Chinese; repealed in 1943
Ellis Island the main entry place for immigrants crossing the Atlantic Ocean
Angel Island the main entry place for immigrants crossing the Pacific Ocean
worker problems long hours with low pay; dangerous jobs; no benefits; no right to strike; child labor;
SWEATSHOPS crowded work place associated with WOMEN worker; poorly lit; poorly ventilated; and unsafe
labor unions organizations of workers that used strikes and collective bargaining to improve wages and working conditions.
Knights of Labor tried to organize ALL workers; demanded equal pay for women; 8 hours workday; child labor laws
Eugene Debs famous SOCIALIST that led the American RAILWAY UNION which did the FIRST GREAT STRIKE
American Federation of Labor the largest labor union; led by Samuel Gompers; used strikes and collective bargaining
Haymarket Affair, Homestead Strike 2 famous strikes that gave the unions reputations for violence and anarchy
Pullman Strike established the precedent of owners seeking injunctions to halt strikes
Great Railway Strike the first big strike
City Problems with Urbanization crowded tenements; unsanitary and unhygienic conditions; fires like the Great Chicago Fire; crime
Jane Addams social reformer who was part of the settlement house movement for poor people
Created by: SarahDishman



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