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STAAR Facts Test 2

STAAR Facts- Colonization, Revolution, Constitution, Early Republic

*Religion (God) *Wealth (Gold) *Fame and International recognition (Glory) Reasons for European exploration
1st Amendment freedom of speech, religion, press, petition, assembly
2nd Amendment right to bear arms
3rd Amendment no quartering of troops in homes
4th Amendment no unreasonable searches or seizures
5th Amendment right to freedom from self-incrimination, no double jeopardy
6th Amendment right to a speedy, fair, jury trial with a lawyer
7th Amendment right to a jury trial in civil cases in cases worth more than $20
8th Amendment no cruel and unusual punishment, no excessive bail or fines
9th Amendment rights not mentioned in the Constitution are saved for the people
10th Amendment rights not listed in the Constitution are reserved to the states
1787 date the U.S. Constitution was written at Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia
1803 In what year did Thomas Jefferson purchase the Louisiana Territory during his presidency?
Abigail Adams Wife of John Adams, known for her stance on women's rights
Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay, John Adams Who were some of the leaders of the Federalist party?
Alexander Hamilton A "founding father," and author of the Federalist Papers, the first Secretary of the Treasury
Anne Hutchinson woman kicked out of Massachusetts Bay; founded Rhode Island for religious freedom
Anti-Federalists People who argued against the ratification of the Constitution because it weakened states' rights, wanted a Bill of Rights
Articles of Confederation first government of the United States that created a bond between states for foreign affairs, but could not tax or raise an army (FAILED!)
Battle of Lexington and Concord first shots of the American Revolution, "shot heard round the world"
Battle of Saratoga turning point in the American Revolution, France joins the American side after this battle
Battle of Yorktown last battle of the American Revolution; helped by the French navy
Benjamin Franklin Author, printer, inventor, scientist, and colonial ambassador to France during the American Revolution
Bernardo de Galvez Spanish military leader who held off British in New Orleans, but allowed Americans the use of the port
Bill of Rights The name given to the first ten original amendments to the US Constitution that protected individual freedoms
Boston Massacre British soldiers fire on mob and kill 5 colonists
Boston Tea Party led by the Sons of Liberty; destroyed cases of tea into Boston harbor
Boycott Organized campaign to refuse to buy certain products.
Charles Cornwallis Commander of British forces at the Battle of Yorktown
checks and balances A major principle of the American system of government in which each branch can control other branches. Examples: President votes laws; Senate confirms appointments & treaties; Congress impeaches president & judges...
Constitutional Convention Gathering of representatives in 1787 in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation
Crispus Attucks African American; First person killed in the Boston Massacre; martyr of the American Revolution
Date for the Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776
Declaration of Independence document written by Thomas Jefferson breaking up with England.
Doubled the U.S. in size, gave us control of the Mississippi River What did the purchase of this land do for the United States?
Embargo Act What law was passed that banned imports and exports from other countries?
Executive Branch Branch of government that enforces the laws in the U.S. Also known as the President and Cabinet.
Favored a strong national government and a loose interpretation of the Constitution that would give the government more power What did the Federalists believe about government?
federalism A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Federalists and Democratic- Republicans What two political parties emerged during Washington's presidency?
Federalists People who argued for the ratification of the Constitution
First Great Awakening religious movement of the 1700s that emphasized the importance of reading the Bible and religious feelings
French and Indian War war between England and France over land in North America.
French Which colonizing nation established a good relationship with the Natives and came to the Americas in search of furs to trade?
Fundamental Orders of Connecicut first written constitution in the colonies. Example of a representative government.
Geography of New England colonies rocky, rivers, harbors, forests, cold,
George Mason An Anti-Federalist that was instrumental in creating the Bill of Rights, refused to sign Constitution
George Washington Commander in Chief of the Continental Army, President of the Constitutional Convention and first President of the United States.
Georgia colony founded by James Oglethorpe for debtors
Haym Salomon Polish Jew who spied for Americans and was held as a translator for the Germans by the British, helped finance the Revolution
He sent in the army How did Washington deal with the Whiskey Rebellion?
impressment of sailors What practice began during Jefferson's presidency and continued during Madison's that eventually helped cause the War of 1812?
Individual Rights Freedoms granted to people and protected by the government
Industry (jobs) of New England colonies ship building, fishing, trading, commerce, whaling, small farming.
Intolerable (Coercive) Acts act passed as punishment for the Boston Tea Party (cancelled town meetings, closed the port of Boston)
James Armistead African American spy during the American Revolution. Spied on British General Cornwallis' camp
James Madison The author of the majority of The Federalist Papers, "Father of the Constitution," fourth President of the United States, president during the War of 1812
James Oglethorpe founder of Georgia, a colony for debtors
Jamestown 1607; first permanent English colony in North America
Jefferson and George Mason Who were some of the leaders of the Democratic - Republican Party?
John Adams Massachusetts lawyer who defended British soldiers involved in the Boston Massacre, helped edit the Declaration
John Marshall Who was the judge in the case of Marbury v. Madison?
John Paul Jones Founder of the US Navy; Continental navy commander and privateer known for yelling "I have not yet begun to fight"
Judicial Branch Branch of government that interprets the laws in the U.S. Also known as the Supreme Court & court system.
King George III King of England during the American Revolution
Legislative Branch Branch of government that makes the laws in the U.S. Also known as Congress.
Let the Supreme Court decide if a law was constitutional or unconstitutional (judicial review) What impact did the Case of Marbury v. Madison have?
Lewis and Clark Who did Jefferson send to explore the new territory?
Limited Government Idea that government should not be unrestricted in authority over individuals
Louisiana Purchase What territory did Thomas Jefferson purchase during his presidency?
Loyalist Those who remained loyal to the King
Magna Carta 1st document of English rights, King forced to sign by nobles
Manufacturing increased because we had to make our own goods during the War, America got respect from other nations, we maintained our independence, Great Lakes were no longer disputed What were some of the effects of the War of 1812?
Marquis de Lafayette French noble who served under George Washington in the American Revolution and helped train the American troops
Maryland colony founded for Catholics
Massachusetts Bay Colony colony founded by Puritans for religious freedom.
Mayflower Compact 1620; first document with form of self- government in North America
Mercantilism an economic system to increase a nation''s wealth by sending natural resources from colonies to the mother country.
Mercy Otis Warren Patriot writer that supported independence and convinced others to join the cause. First woman historian of the Americans Revolution, published plays, books, and poetry.
National Bank What did Alexander Hamilton establish as Washington's Secretary of Treasury?
New England Colonies Which region of the colonies did the Puritans settle?
New Jersey Plan Plan at Philadelphia Convention for equal representation in new Congress (1 state 1 vote). Also known as "small state plan." Opposite of the Virginia "big state" Plan. Becomes basis of representation in the Senate.
Northwest Ordinance process established for admitting new states to the Union including requiring a population of 60,000 people, defined boundaries, and so many eligible voters
Only serve 2 terms, Farewell Address, setup a Cabinet (several more) Name important precedents Washington established as president.
Patrick Henry Patriot from Virginia, Spokesperson for independence who gave a famous "Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death" speech urging Virginians to take up arms in their defense, An Anti-Federalists statesman that argued in defense of states' rights
Patriot Those who supported independence from England.
Political parties, don't interfere in European or foreign affairs (stay neutral), don't make taxes too high What did Washington warn about in his Farewell Address?
political parties What started to develop during Washington's presidency that he did not like and warned against in his Farewell Address?
Popular Sovereignty The principle that the authority of the government is created and sustained by the consent of its people
Preamble Opening statement of the Constitution that sets its purpose
Primary reason for declaring independence being taxed without representation "a vote" in Parliament
Proclamation of 1763 Closed off the region west of the Appalachian mountains to colonial settlement
Quartering Act Law requiring colonists to provide housing and supplies to British soldiers.
Ratification Process by which each state had to approve the Constitution in order to establish the federal government
Republicanism Political philosophy that federal laws should be made by elected representatives
Roger Williams man kicked out of Massachusetts Bay; founded Rhode Island for religious freedom
Samuel Adams Leader of the Sons of Liberty and Patriot who established the committees of correspondence in Boston & is thought to have planned the Boston Tea Party
Separation of Powers Constitutional provision that ensures no single branch of government has complete authority, divides the duties
setup the court system What did the Judiciary Act that was passed while Washington was President establish?
Shay's Rebellion 1786 revolt in Massachusetts that revealed a need for a national army and new government.
Stamp Act Act which places a tax on almost all printed materials.
States governments should have more power and a strict interpretation of the Constitution that limited the powers of the government to those listed in the Constitution, Bill of Rights was necessary What did the Democratic-Republicans believe about government?
Sugar Act Replaces the Molasses Act and placed a duty on molasses or sugar
Tea Act tax on tea; said colonists had to buy tea from England
The British blockade forced Americans to produce their own goods and actually increased manufacturing. How did the war impact manufacturing in the United States?
The Federalist Papers A set of essays written in support of the ratification of the Constitution
The Great Compromise An agreement between states that created two houses of Congress based on both state population (House) and equal representation for each state (Senate)
Thomas Hooker Minister who leaves Massachusetts to settle Hartford, Connecticut for religious freedom; helped frame the FOC
Thomas Jefferson author of the Declaration of Independence
Thomas Paine Author of the revolutionary pamphlet, Common Sense and The American Crisis; urged Americans to support the Patriot cause
Three-Fifths Compromise An agreement that states could count their slave population as a fraction in comparison to their free population for the purpose of representation and taxation
Told European nations to stay out of the western hemisphere and North America- no further colonization would be permitted without consequences What did the Monroe Doctrine say?
Townshend Acts Tax on imported goods, including tea and glass, paint and lead
Treaty of Paris 1763 ended the French and Indian War; gave all land West of the MS River to Spain and land East to England.
Treaty of Paris 1783 Agreement that ended the American Revolutionary War
Triangular Trade trade between England, the Americas, and Africa in which slaves, rum, and manufactured products were exchanged
unalienable rights (definition) rights given to you at birth that cannot be taken away
unalienable rights life, liberty, pursuit of happiness
Valley Forge winter camp where Washington's men die of cold, starvation , and disease.
Virginia House of Burgesses the first representative assembly of elected representatives in North America.
Virginia Plan "Large state" proposal for the new constitution, calling for population- based representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress. The plan favored larger states and thus prompted smaller states to come back with their own plan for apportioning represe
Washington, D.C. What city did the British set on fire during the War of 1812?
Wentworth Cheswell Educated African American Patriot, made the same midnight ride as Paul Revere warning that the British were coming.
What is the geography of the Southern colonies like? rich fertile soil, long growing seasons, hot
What is the primary industry in the South? plantations; agriculture that depends on slave labor.
What was the Economy of the Middle Colonies like? "breadbasket" colonies, grew grains for the colonies, ironworks
What was the Geography of the Middle Colonies like? moderate weather, rich soil, small farms
William Penn A wealthy Quaker who founded Pennsylvania
Created by: sealek
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