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Infection Immunity 1

Topic 4 Infection and Immunity

QuestionAnswer
what's the leading cause of death from infection? Resp infection 2.74 million death in 2015
Where do infectious disease hit the hardest? Young children in 3rd world countries.
What are some things that make infectious diseases special? Reliance of disease on signle agent, transmissibility, potential for unpredictable explosive global impact, derivatin from or evolution in other animals, potential for long-lasting immunity/prevention/eradication
How many bacteria and bacterial viruses were found per human in Human microbiome project? 10^14 bacteria and 10^16 bacterial viruses.
How many bacterial genes reside within us? >10 mil.
What did Antoni van Leeuwenhoek do? invented first microscope, single lens, curvature of water sample acted as second lens. Drew highly accurate drawings of bacteria.
What is the universla phylogenetic tree based on? small subunit rRNA sequence - divided into bacteria, archaea, eucarya.
Why is 16S rRNA used to classify Bacteria? it is highly conserved between different species of bacteria and archaea
What are prions? infectious proteins
What differs b/w a protazoa and a metazoa? proto - single cell, meta - tissue differentiation.
How long ago did microorganisms appear? about 3.7 billion years ago.
How do we know that microorganisms lived before the crust was fully stabilised? element patterns e.g. build up of iron on lake edges.
What is an obligate anaerobe? Die from oxyegn. 50% are found in the mouth.
How many new species of infectious agents evolved since 1977 12
What did Margaret Chan, director general of WHO, say about antibiotics? Resistance could bring the end of modern medicine as we know it
name some bugs already resistant: Methicillin-res. Staph. aureas; Penicillin-res. pneumococci; VRE; VISA; CRE; Extensively-resistant Mycobact. tuberculosis.
What are some factors in disease emergence? adaption to new environment/host, ecological changes, pop growth, human demographics & behaviour, tech & industry, breakdown in public health measures.
Created by: lmdavis97