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The Cold War

GI Bill of Rights (Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944) Forestalled expected recession: eased veterans back into work, reduce female competition, veteran unemployment benefits
Colleges and universities Many created, over 1/2 of students were veterans in 1947, wanted degree more than education (women were dropped out)
Bretton Woods Agreement (1944) Placed US as an economic leader of the non-communist world
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) Helped rebuild Asia and Europe
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Broke trading blocks, expanded international trade
Employment Act of 1946 Major Truman accomplishment - fed gov had to ensure national growth. Established Council of Economic Advisers to expand pres. power to maintain economic place (denied by Congress)
Office of Price Administration Enforced price controls, product makers and sellers opposed continuing wartime controls
Midterm election of 1946 Repubs won 25 govs, control of both houses
George F. Kennan American diplomat in Moscow - wired telegram to State Department, said US should be containment of Russians, saying that they would eventually break up (get tough with Russia)
Containment Policy uniting all strategies to stop Soviet expansion, enhance American's influence.
Atomic Energy Commission Developed nuclear energy / weapons
Causes of Cold War Economic pressure, nuclear intimidation, propaganda, subversion, proxy wars (ideological)
Dean Acheston Undersecretary of state - showed Congress why US should help Greece and Turkey (stop communist spread south)
Truman Doctrine Given $400M military aid to Greece / Turkey - said US must support free people from outside pressures - ACTIVE engagement containing communism
National Security Act of 1947 Unified armed forces under ONE Department of Defense
National Security Council (NSC) Provide foreign policy info to pres / advise him on strategy
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Established to gather information abroad, engage in covert activities for US security
Marshall Plan (European Recovery Plan) Also against communism, rose industry by 200% in Western Europe, $17B in aid helped 16 countries overcome communist chaos
Berlin airlift Provided blockaded Berlin with aid after West and East Germany had divided and Soviets had blocked off rail/highway routes through soviet zone (Placed June '48, removed May '49)
Federal Republic of Germany AKA West Germany, made in May '49 after US, British, French ended German occupation
North Atlantic Treaty Mutual defense pact with the US, Canada, and 10 Western Europe countries
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) Marked end of US isolationism, US joined in July '49
The Warsaw Pact Set up by East Germany in 1955 as a military alliance
Mao Zedong Communist leader of China's new gov. Took over China without a fight
Jiang Jieshi Nationalist leader of China's government. Withdrew to Taiwan after surrendering
People's Republic of China Known as Red China, Communist Chinese gov by Zedong
Mike Nickname for first thermonuclear bomb (hydrogen) 500x more powerful than atomic bomb. Soviets built their own as well
NSC-68 Secret National Security Council report that emphasized Russia's military strength. Called for massive nuclear increases, large standing army, covert actions by CIA, 4x defense budget
Korean War June 24, 1950 - North Korean attack on South Korea - Truman viewed attack as a communist test, sent troops. He didn't seat Chinese representative in UN which angered Soviets
General Douglas MacArthur Appointed to command UN effort in Korean War, helped push North Koreans back above 38th parallel. Fired in April 10, 1951 for criticizing Truman's limited war. Replaced with Matthew Ridgway
Consequences of Korean War Defense spending, army, nuclear weapons, bases increased. Committed to help West Germany.
Taft-Hartley Act (Labor-Management Relations Act) Banned only-union workplace, outlawed secondary boycotts, union leaders signed loyalty oaths. Weakened organized labor. Vetoed by Truman (overrode) - showed Truman's organized labor support.
President's Committee on Civil Rights Emphasized all reasons to make laws against lynching and poll taxes, a permanent FEPC, desegregate army, segregation in public places
Election of 1948 Truman wanted to implement more civil rights, but backed down to keep southern vote. Dixiecrats placed their electors on Democratic ticket. Truman vs Henry Wallace (Prog) vs Thomas Dewey (R)
Morgan v Virginia (1946) Declared bus transportation unconstitutional
Shelley v Kraemer (1948) Outlawed covenants against selling / renting of houses to minorities
Fair Deal Truman's agenda - civil rights, national health-care, education aid
81st Congress Accepted existing programs, rejected most Fair Deal measures
Secon Red Scare Americans were subjected to investigation / loyalty oaths.
Executive Order 9835 Established Federal Employee Loyalty Program to find traitors in government. Communists and even homosexuals were found disloyal.
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) 1947, began hearings to expose communist influence. Those testified and want their rights would be viewed as dangerous or communist.
Hollywood Ten Group of film makers who refused to say if they had been communist, all were sent to prison
Dennis v US Upheld constitutionality of The Smith Act of 1940 (outlawing conspiracy for overthrowing of gov) by letting Congress stop freedom of speech if national security required it
Alger Hiss and Whittaker Chambers Chambers (former Soviet agent) identified as underground communists in 1930s. Hiss (lawyer) denied communist accusation by Rep. Both heightened fears of Dems filled w/ communism.
Alger Hiss and Whittaker Chambers conflict Hiss admitted knowing Chambers, Chambers said Hiss committed espionage by giving him secret gov papers to give to Soviets that were traced back to Hiss - sent to prison.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Klaus Fuchs (German involved in Manhattan Project) arrested for passing atomic secrets - accomplice named siblings as knowing, jury found them both guilty and sentenced on June 19, 1953 as the first to die of espionage
Joseph R. McCarthy Blamed for lying, responded by telling WV a list of 205 members of Truman administration of being Communist. Found as a hoax, but persisted.
McCarthyism Word for individual attacks by false allegations and unproven charges. Appealed to midwestern Reps. Attacked liberals
McCarran Internal Security Act Required "communist" organizations to register w/ Department of Justice - authorized arrests of any person possible of espionage.
McCarran-Walter Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 Maintained restriction on immigration from East/Southern immigration, ended ban on Japanese immigration. Increased authority to deport homosexuals/communists
Election of 1952 Gov Adlai Stevenson (Dem, weak speeches, 20 years of Dem was enough) vs Dwight D Eisenhower (Rep, war hero, chose Nixon as running mate) - Eisenhower won, won slight control of both houses.
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