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Gilded Age - WW1

US History STAAR EOC Vocabulary - Gilded Age to WW1

Interstate Commerce Act Prohibited unfair practices by railroads such as charging higher rates for shorter routes.
Laissez-faire theory that government should not interfere in the operation of the free market.
Bessemer Process New technological process which made steel more affordable and profitable.
John D. Rockefeller Businessman who made his fortune refining oil; founded Standard Oil Co. (monopoly).
Transcontinental Railroad "Completed in 1869 at Promontory Point
Labor Unions Organized workers to act as a group
Child Labor Were used to work in small areas.
Gospel of Wealth Carnegie's theory that the rich were obligated to help communities by giving back in the form of libraries and schools but NOT giving directly to individuals.
Robber Barons Businessmen who used ruthless tactics to destroy competition and keep workers' wages low.
Andrew Carnegie Scottish immigrant who made his fortune in steel monopoly; known for his 'Gospel of Wealth'
Captains of Industry Businessmen known for their positive contributions to the modern industrial economy.
Philanthropy Act of 'charitable giving'
Monopoly Complete control of a product or service; the elimination of fair competition
Anti-Trust Acts Laws designed to prevent companies from engaging in unfair practices that eliminated fair competition.
Social Darwinism Economic philosophy based on the 'Survival of the Fittest'
Great Plains Area of the country settled by farmers that were brought to the area from the east by the Transcontinental Railroad.
Gold Rush Miners were attracted to the area by discovery of precious metals.
Tenements "Single room apartments often without heating
Political Bosses Corrupt city government officials who promised to provide services and jobs in exchange for votes.
Cattle drive Movement by cowboys of cattle to rail stations in the north to connect to markets in the east.
Ethnic ghettos "Immigrant neighborhoods made up of people of similar nationality
Chinese Exclusion Act First federal law restricting Asian immigration to the United States.
Push and Pull Factors Reasons why immigrants left their country and moved to the U.S. (Push: poverty, Pull: opportunity)
Indian Wars Battles of Little Big Horn
Dawes Act Law that divided up reservations and destroyed Indian culture.
Political Machine Unofficial city organized designed to keep a party in power; usually corrupt and used bribes to get immigrant votes.
Assimilation Process by which people of one culture merge into and become part of another culture.
Homestead Act 1862 law that gave free land to citizens in the Great Plains; led to the closing of the frontier & settlement of the West.
Urbanization Growth of large cities; movement from rural to urban.
Tammany Hall Most notorious political machine designed to keep Democrats in control of NYC; led by 'Boss Tweed.'
Americanization Process of turning in to an American and having their culture.
Nativism Dislike of foreigners.
Rough Riders Group of volunteers, led by Teddy Roosevelt, that gained fame during the Spanish-American war.
Foreign policy consists of a country's policies towards other nations.
Yellow journalism Sensationalized events in Cuba by American newspapers eager for a war with Spain.
De Lome Letter Letter written by a Spanish official, claiming that President McKinley was weak.
Spanish-American War Fought on two fronts, in the Caribbean and in the Pacific, against the Spanish empire.
Alfred Thayer Mahan Argued that, to achieve world power, the U.S. needed a strong, powerful Navy.
Dollar Diplomacy President Taft's foreign policy toward Latin America that advocated for financial investment in Latin America.
U.S.S. Maine Warship that mysteriously exploded in Havana, Cuba; seen as a cause of the Spanish-American War.
Queen Liliuokalani Said that Hawaii should be led and controlled by Hawaiians, later surrenders to Americans and is overthrown.
Panama Canal Completed in 1914, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; allowed for faster travel between oceans.
Open Door Policy Gave equal trading rights to all countries in China.
Big Stick Policy President Roosevelt's foreign policy that he would "speak softly and carry a big stick"; use force if necessary.
John J. Pershing Leader of the American Expeditionary Forces; sent to Mexico to hunt down famous Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa.
Roosevelt Corollary Addition to the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the U.S. would intervene in the affairs of Latin America as a police force.
Imperialism Policy or practice of extending a nation's rule over the less powerful territories.
Moral Diplomacy President Wilson's foreign policy of only supporting democratic countries.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand Austrian-Hungarian leader who was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist; considered spark of World War I.
Selective Service Act Government can now draft men into war.
Neutrality Policy of not taking sides in a war.
League of Nations International peace-keeping organization, created after WWI.
U-Boats German submarines
Unrestricted submarine warfare Germany's policy of using U-Boats to attack any ship during WWI regardless of country's affiliation with the war.
Alvin York Congressional Medal of Honor recipient for heroism in WWI.
Western Front fight on the French and Germany boundary during WWI.
Trench warfare New and strange method of fighting that resulted from the use of machine guns; soldiers dug into the earth to create trenches to fight from.
Sussex Pledge Germany promised not to sink any more ocean liners without prior warning or providing help to passengers.
Treaty of Versailles Ended WWI with provisions that were considered very harsh on Germany.
Battle of Argonne Forest Considered a turning point in WWI; Germany defeated and forced to sign an armistice.
American Expeditionary Forces American fighting force (troops) in WW1 that were led by John J. Pershing.
Reparations Provision of the Treaty of Versailles that made Germany pay for the war damages.
Zimmerman Telegram Secret message from Germany to Mexico, promising to return lost territories if they entered into an alliance with Germany against the U.S.
Espionage and Sedition Acts Made it a crime to criticize American involvement in WW1; considered to go against the freedom of speech.
Woodrow Wilson President who attempted to remain neutral in WWI but was eventually forced to ask for a declaration of war after Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare.
Schenck v. U.S. Supreme Court ruling limiting free speech when it poses a "clear and present" danger.
Lusitania British passenger ship that was sunk by German U-boats, killing over 1,000 people, including Americans.
Fourteen Points Proposed by Wilson before the end of WWI as the basis for peace in Europe; included a League of Nations.
Isolationism Policy after WWI of separation from affairs of other countries and turning their backs to Europe.
Machine Gun Technology developed to automatically fire bullets at high rates; led to the digging of trenches and a stalemate in the WWI.
Tank Technology developed to overcome machine guns and trenches; ended stalemate on the Western Front.
Central Powers WWI Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary; Ottoman Empire
Allied Powers WWI Alliance: Serbia, Great Britain, Russia, France, United States, Italy
Initiative Allows citizens to propose laws and vote on them.
Progressive Movement Aimed at correcting the political and social injustices of the Gilded Age.
Settlement House Community center for immigrants and poor people living in crowded cities.
Muckrakers Reporters, writers, and photographers who exposed the injustices of industrial society and government corruption.
Populist Party Political party representing the common man - farmers, industrial workers - the promoted reforms such as free silver.
18th Amendment Prohibition of the sale, manufacture, and transport of alcohol
Jane Addams Reformer known for establishing the Hull House
Ida B. Wells Reformer that organized a national anti-lynching crusade
Social Gospel Movement It was the moral responsibility of Christians to pass reforms to enhance the lives of the less fortunate
Pure Food and Drug Act Protected consumers health and welfare by insuring quality products
Upton Sinclair Muckraker who wrote about the abuses in the meat packing industry in "The Jungle"
Recall Elected officials can be removed from office by a special election.
17th Amendment Direct election of senators
Square Deal Theodore Roosevelt's progressive program that aimed at protecting the public's general welfare.
19th Amendment Government cannot deny the right to vote based on gender.
Federal Reserve Act of 1913 Law that created Federal Reserve System to control monetary policy.
WEB Du Bois African-American reformer who helped found the NAACP
Theodore Roosevelt Progressive president known for busting trusts
Temperance Movement Led by women, like Francis Willard, to eliminate alcohol
Booker T. Washington Reformer who proposed African-Americans achieve equality gradually through job training.
Created by: rkrauseemhs