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Ancient Greece Notes

TermDefinition
1.) Geography and its effect on settlement and Greek life The mountains between the communities isolated one from another, making travel and trade very difficult. This also made communication hard, stopping communities with keeping up with the latest news.
2.) Colonization: Reasons and Process The Greeks started colonies to make more farmland to feed the Greek people. The colonies would extend the amount of farmland, allowing them to make more food for themselves.
3.) Colonization: Reasons and Process, Part 2 To start a colony, colonists would first have to consult and oracle, someone who could contact the gods. If the oracle said the journey was successful, they were allowed to go. If the oracle predicted a bad outcome, colonists were not allowed to go.
4.) Colonization: Reasons and Process, Part 3 If colonists were allowed to go, the would need to gather supplies. Food and water were collected and stored on their use of transportation.
5.) Agora The Agora was the name of the Athenian marketplace. Anything from fish to sandals could be purchased. Also, slaves could be purchased here. The Agora was like a modern day Costco.
6.) Minoans Settled in Crete. Were very famous for their Minotaur. Peaceful farmers. Used the Mediterranean to trade. Boxed and bull fought for entertainment. Treated women as equal. Were attacked me the Mycenaeans. Wrote in Linear A
7.) Mycenaeans Took over the Minoans, but Peloponnesus was their biggest city. Adopted trade, language and architecture over the Mediterranean. Relied heavily on trade. Very warlike people. Made bronze weapons. All cities fell except for Athens to many other powers.
8.) Monarchy A type of Government where a King or Queen (Monarch) has most of the power. This is a form of government used in England. A monarchy calls for quick decision making.
9.) Tyranny A form of government that is ruled by a tyrant. Tyrants gain power by force and manipulative voting processes . They control people by fear.
10.) Spartan Oligarchy Ruled by a Council of Elders and two Kings. These men had most of the power, but they had advisers that made sure everything was fair. Also, there was an assembly for free men.
11.) Aristocrat A rich social class that would advise monarchs. Aristocrats are able to overthrow a king to take power and create an Oligarchy. They provide support for the king.
12.) Athenian Democracy The Athenian Democracy was a council of elected members . All free men could attend an assembly and speak freely about any subject. Even though decision making was slow, it was an effective form of government.
13.) The Trojan War A ten year attack on Troy by Greece. Homer wrote about this war in the Iliad and said it was caused by the capture of Helen of Sparta. Also,it was caused was control of trading port of Troy on the Hellespont.
14.) Hellespont The mile long waterway that connected the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea. Was the site of the siege of Troy during the Trojan War. Also where the Battle of Thermopylae took place. Moved the Persian army
15.) Homer Ancient Greek writer who wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey, which were first stories written after the Greek Dark Ages. Homer was also a bard.
16.) Persian Wars Reason for conflict: Ionian colonists rebelled against Persian taxation and were assisted by Athens. Persian King Darius wanted revenge. Three battles followed: Marathon, Thermopylae and Salamis.
17.) Phalanx The military formation the Spartans used in battle. Each man protected each other and no one was superior.
18.) Battle of Marathon King Darius of Persia wanted to punish the Athenians for aiding the Ionians during their rebellion. The Greeks used a weak center line to lure the Persians in. The strong Greek flanks surrounded the Persians and this lead to a great Athenian victory.
19.) Darius Persian King at the Battle of Marathon. Father of Xerxes, son of Cyrus. Lead the Persians at the battle of Marathon.
20.) Miltiades Greek leader during the Battle of Marathon. Used flank strategy to defeat the Persians despite the Greeks being outnumbered 3-1 in the Battle of Marathon.
21.) Battle of Thermopylae Persians won even though many Greeks considered it a victory. Leonidas used the geography to shorten the Persian army, being able to hold them off for about two days. After the two days, they were defeated.
22.) Xerxes Son of King Darius, led Persians at Thermopylae and Salamis.
23.) Leonidas Spartan king led Greek forces against Xerxes at Thermopylae where Greeks were outnumbered 50-1.
24.) Battle at Salamis Greek naval victory, Greek leader Themistocles, used "natural geography " to force the larger Persian fleet to advance a fewer number of their ships into battle with the smaller Greek fleet. This way, the small Greek ships could easily sink the Persians.
25.) Themistocles Athenian politician and general. Leader of the Greek navy.
26.) The Peloponnesian War Sparta grew jealous over Athens prosperity and declared war. Sparta wins but city states are divided and weak because of war. Greece is then taken over because of it's loss of power.
27.) Pericles Political and military leader of Athens during the Golden Age. Rebuilt the Parthenon and fixed the government system.
28.) Alexander the Great Became king of Macedonia at age 20 and created largest empire in the world. Wanted to spread his love of Greek culture to his conquered lands.
29.) Socrates Famous Greek philosopher who taught students to question reasoning. His methods are still used in today.
30.) Plato Socrate's most famous student who continued Socrates' methods and was also a very famous philosopher.
31.) Thucydides Known as the father of scientific history who wrote non-biased anecdotes about events
32.) Herodotus Know as the father of history. Was the first to write accurate accounts of events even though they were biased
33.) Pythagoras Known as the father of numbers. Famous for his Pythagorean Theorem which is still used today to measure the hypotenuse of a triangle.
34.) Parthenon Athena's temple on top of the Acropolis. Pericles rebuilt it after the Persians burned it down.
Created by: wbaisch23