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Unit 4: New Nation

8th grade U.S. History--MR LESINSKI

QuestionAnswer
When was George Washington president? 1789-1797
Andrew Jackson American leader during the Battle of New Orleans
Aaron Burr Thomas Jefferson's opponent during the election of 1800
Cabinet the group of department heads who serve as the president's chief advisors
Impressment the forcible seizure of men for military service
Embargo Act a government ban on trade with one or more nations
Louisiana Purchase ----purchased by Thomas Jefferson ----conflicted with Strict Interpretation ----gave access to Mississippi River
Marbury v. Madison -judicial review
Judicial Review Supreme Court can decide if a law is unconstitutional
Alexander Hamilton Secretary of the Treasury under Washington
Bank of the United States Hamilton: ----help the economy of the country ----produced paper currency for the nation
Hamilton's Financial Plan ----create a Bank of the United States ----take on the states' debt
Neutrality ----not taking a side in a conflict ----promoted by Washington, Jefferson, and Adams
Republicans ----strict interpretation ----strong state government ----tended to be from the South ----Jefferson, Madison, Monroe
Federalists ----loose interpretation ----strong national government ----tended to be from the North ----Washington, Adams, Hamilton
Pinckney's Treaty (1795) Spain gave the Americans the right to freely travel on the Mississippi River and use the port of New Orleans. *was a treaty
Jay's Treaty ----treaty with England ----supposed to remove British soldiers from Northwest Territory ----weak, not enforced (1794-95)
XYZ Affair ----French foreign minister refused to meet with American delegates ----lower-level French officials demanded a bribe
Causes of War of 1812 ----British supplying N.A. with weapons to fight white settlers ----British impressment of American sailors ----War Hawks
Impacts of War of 1812 ----Federalist party disbanded ----U.S. manufacturing grows ----U.S. gains respect from other nations
Midnight Judges ----Federalist judges appointed on the last day of Adams' term ----Thomas Jefferson withheld documents to swear them in
Thomas Jefferson ----3rd President ----Louisiana Purchase ----Republican ----strict interpretation
John Marshall ----chief justice of the Supreme Court for 30 years ----increased power of the Courts ----justice during Marbury v. Madison
Judiciary Act of 1801 ----Adams' last night in office ----added 16 judges to Supreme Court ----midnight judges ----will be the cause of Marbury v. Madison
Alien and Sedition Acts ----made becoming a citizen of the US harder ----infringed upon free speech ----government could imprison people for speaking out against the government
benefits of going to war with Britain? ----To allow reopening of trade ----National Pride ----To stop the impressment of sailors ----We would possibly get Canada
What went on in Washington’s presidency that violated the constitution? The federal judiciary act of 1789
What did Washington do after his presidency? Washington promptly resigned as general and retired to Mt. Vernon, to live out his days.
When was Washington inaugurated April 30, 1789 in Virginia
what did the Federal Judiciary Act of 1789 do? ----Created an independent federal court system with the Supreme Court and lower level courts. ----The U.S. Supreme Court is to have a chief Justice and 5 associate justices. ----Washington appoints John Jay as Chief Justice.
Who was the 1st Secretary of War? Henry Knox
What did secretary of war do? Oversee the nation’s defenses.
Who was the 1st Secretary of State? Thomas Jefferson
What did Secretary of state do? Oversee the relations between the U.S. and other countries
Who was the 1st Secretary of the Treasury? Alexander Hamilton
What did the Secretary of the Treasury do? manage the government’s money.
Who was the 1st Attorney General? Edmund Randolph
What did the attorney general do? advise the government on legal matters.
what did Hamilton believe? the federal government should be stronger than the state governments
What's Hamilton's Financial Plan? ----Pay off the war debt to develop the trust of other nations for trade ----Raise the federal Government’s revenues through tariffs and taxes ----Create a national bank
reasons to have a national bank: ----Safe place to keep the government’s money ----Can make loans to business ----Would issue paper currency ----Strengthen the federal government
What 2 parts of Hamilton's plan pass? -----All debt is consolidated into the Federal Government -----National Bank is created with a tern
What is Strict Construction Only what the constitution clearly states- favored by Jefferson and Madison
What is Loose Construction The Constitution should be flexible to meet the needs of the country (Elastic Clause). Flavored by Hamilton and Adams.
The Whiskey Rebellion (1794) PA farmers refused to pay the tax until the American Army enforces it. This upholds the power of the new federal government.
The French Revolution (1789-1793) The French people overthrow the French monarchy by executing King Louis XVI
What did Jay's Treaty do? ----Got our forts and respect (Sort of) ----No mention of impressment ----Gave Great Britain the upper hand ----Essentially nothing is solved with treaty
What did Jefferson do as president? ----Reduced number of Government employees ----Fires all tax collectors ----Eliminated all federal tax ----Reduces budget of Army ----Reduces army by ½
What were Jefferson's ideas ----Jefferson believed a large federal government threatened liberty ----He believed states could better protect freedom ----Jefferson wanted to reduce the power and size of the government
What did Jefferson do as president? reduced the national debt by scaling down military expenses, all federal internal taxes including the Whiskey tax were repealed. government funds would come from custom duties (taxes on imported goods) and from sale of Western lands
In Marbury V. Madison, what principles of judicial review were established? ----The Constitution is the supreme law ----The Constitution must be followed when there is a conflict between it and any other law. ----The judicial branch must uphold the Constitution and nullify unconstitutional laws
What was the Embargo Act? ----1807 U.S. ships will not leave United States ports so exports go from $110 million to $25 million in one year ----
What happened in War of 1812 ----United States ships were being harassed, and cargo was seized. ----Impressment for American sailors ----Economic Diplomacy fails
Who was Madison? ----Madison was Jefferson’s secretary of state ----Madison was an author of 30 of the 81 the federalist papers ----Considered the most important contributor to the constitution
What was Madison’s role leading up to the war of 1812? Non-Intercourse Act, and War Hawks
What was Non-Intercourse Act Forbade trade with France and Britain; however president could reopen trade when either France or Britain lifted restrictions
Who were War Hawks Southern congressmen favored war, even though it hurt the east.
What were some drawbacks of going to war? ----Not everyone in the United States wanted to go to war ----Military was small ----Britain was a great superpower and we could lose territory that was gained in the Treaty of Paris or the Louisiana purchase.
When did Madison ask Congress for declaration of war. June of 1812
What did war start with? invasion of canada
Who in Washington's administration opposed the national bank? Thomas Jefferson
What proclamation said the United States would not support any country in time of war? neutrality
What treaty gave unrestricted use of the Mississippi River? Pinckney's Treaty
Which act made it illegal to speak against the government? Sedition Act
Which political party was in control first? The federalists
The pickney's treaty dealt with what country? Spain
Election of 1800 was tied with which two candidates? Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr
Who decided the election of 1800? House of Representatives
Which court established the judicial review? John Marshall
Who was the speaker of the house in 1811? Henry Clay
What gives supreme court power to declare laws by congress unconstitutional? Judicial Review
Who was the president during the war of 1812 Madison
Who wrote the star spangled banner and where? Francis Scott Key in Fort McHenry
First person who developed a national bank? Hamilton
What land did the United States try to expand in the War of 1812? Canada
Which treaty entered War of 1812 Treaty of Ghent
Who was the first chief justice in the United States supreme court John Jay
How much was Louisiana 15 million
Why did the napoleon sell the Louisiana to Jefferson? They needed money
When did Jefferson and Adams die July 4, 1826
Who was Adams vice president Jefferson
Created by: 22repack