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Latin American Histo

Latin American History for Mr. Grossman's Class

TermDefinition
Ten Years War The Cuban war of independence from Spain. It was waged by Peninsulas (Criollos). It was ended by the Pact of Zanjon. 1868-1878.
Dance of The Millon The rise of sugar prices after WW1. This period was followed by a severe depression in sugar prices due to economic depressions in Europe.
Antonio Maceo The Bronze Tiger was a vet of the 1968 Cuban rebellion. He was a black military leader recruited by Jose Marti.
Foco Theory The idea that Latin America could achieve widespread freedom by having country folk pick up arms against their respective governments. This would give the Cuba allies. The movement failed and killed Che Guevara.
Bay of Pigs Failed attempt to use Cuban ex-pats to over through Fidel Castro in April of 1961.
Jose' Marti' Cuban revolutionary and journalist who was killed after an attempt to free Cuba from Spain. National hero. Was killed in 1895.
NAFTA NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT. Started by Bush and completed by Clinton. Allowed for tariff-free trade between Mexico, US, and Canada.
26th of July Student revolt that failed to take an armory after a festival.
Lazaro Cardenas Picked as a puppet president, he was a reformer. Exiled Calle and nationalizes the Oil Companies.
Alvaro Obregon Military revolutionary against Spain. Becomes President in 1919 and is assassinated at a dinner party by a portrait artist.
Christeros Assassinated Obegron after his election.
Ejidos Publicly held lands designed to give farming rights to the poor under the presidency of Lazaro Cardenas.
PRI Started as the PNR in 1929 under Calle it was changed to the PRM under Cardenes. Finally PRI under Camacho in 1946. It is the only party that has been in power for the last 70+ years.
Plan De Ayala 1911 Emiliano Denounces the Mexican president as a betrayer of the revolution and sets out a plan for land reform.
Plan de San Luis Potosi 1910. Written when Francisco Madero escapes from jail. Calls for the removal of Porfirio Diaz due to bad governance and corruption and provisions for the installation of Madero as president.
FSLN Sandinista National Liberation Front. Nicaragua. Named after Sandino, they overthrew Samoza and educated people, healthcare, and equal rights. 1979-1990. Fought the American-backed Contras.
URNG
FMLN Farbundo Marti National Liberation Front. Major political Party in El Salvador. Guerrilla warfare, leftist.
UFCO United Fruit CO. Chiquita Banana's often played politics to secure land and trade. Banana Republic.
ORDEN National Democratic Organization. Political party that formed Death Squads to squash dissent. 1970's.
Central American Common MArket A union of Central American countries to concentrate resources to improve trade.
Jacobo Arbenz Guatemala, elected as president in 1950. He tried to modernize Guatemala with industry and redistribute wealth. Retired when attacked by exile army.
Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo Argentinean mothers who protest for information about their Disappeared relatives.
Carlos Castillo Armas
La Matanza The Massacre of 1932 that killed 30, 000 after a failed revolution. led by Marti.
Hipolito Yrigoyen
Jose Efrain Rios Montt
Jorge Ubico
Augusto Sandino Writes the Sandino Manifesto in 1920's against the corrupt government. Hides in the mountains. Killed by Samoza in 1934.
Jose Santo Zelaya
Carlos Fonseca
School of The Americas US school to train military officers. The "students" perpetrated human rights abuses.
Justicialismo
Rigoberta Menchu
Roosevelt Corollary
Roberto D'Aubuisson
Contras An ex-pat, american back rebels who tried to overthrow the Sandanistan government.
Disappeared People that were kidnapped, tortured, and then dropped over the ocean.
14 Families
Daniel Ortega President of Nicaragua since 1984
Raul Alfonsin elected in 1989 as a radical President of Argentina.
Agustin Farabundo Marti Jan. 22 1932, he leads a failed revolution against the government. Government kills 30.000 people.
William Walker William Walker (1840's )hired by Leon to fight Granada. Kicked out. Returns to Honduras to create a U.S. Slave territory when he is shot. where he is shot.
Guardia Nacional National Guard of Nicaragua
Liberation Theology Philosophy that the Gospels teach against tyranny. Adopted by clergy in Argentina. Esp. Oscar Romero.
Rafael Carrera President of Guatemala in 1844-48 and then again in 1961-1965. Broke up Central American Union.
Isabel Peron Second wife and VP of Argentina. When her husband died she became president
Adolpho Diaz The conservative president of Nicaragua in 1911. He was installed by the US. He became president again in 1911 after a military coup.
Pedro Joaquin Chamorro Nicaragua newspaper editor. killed downtown because of his opposition to President Somoza
Oscar Romero El Salvador 1980. Catholic priest who spoke out against the activities of Death squads and was assassinated in 1980.
Created by: aureliusii