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APUSH Unit 7.

War, prosperity, and depression (1890-1945)

QuestionAnswer
Why did Americans begin moving to Hawaii? Hawaii was a good place to grow sugarcane and fruit.
How did the US get control of Hawaii? American companies staged a revolt in Hawaii and the US military came in and took over.
What event made the US decide to get involved in Cuba's independence from Spain? The USS Maine exploded in the Havana harbor and we said that the Spanish did it.
Where was the first battle of the Spanish American War fought? Philippines
Who was the leader of the Rough Riders in the Spanish American War? Teddy Roosevelt
What happened to the Philippines and the Filipino people after the Spanish American War? We bought the Philippines but didn't give them freedom right away.
What law was passed in Cuba after we helped them gain independence from Spain? Platt Amendment
What are the four parts of the Platt Amendment? 1. Cuba can't have too much debt with other countries. 2. US can have bases in Cuba. 3. Cuba won't make any treaties that threaten their independence. 4. US can intervene if Cuba's independence is threatened
Filipino revolutionary who helped us defeat the Spanish in the Philippines but wanted the US out once the war was over Amillo Amagaldo
What two factors made China a perfect market for US expansion? Open Door Policy, Boxer Rebellion
Policy that said the spheres of influence in China should be ended and that all nations should be open to trade with China Open Door Policy
Revolt in China that was quickly crushed Boxer Rebellion
Why did we want Panama to become an independent country? We wanted to use them to make it easier to transport goods.
What did we do with Panama after helping them gain independence? Built the Panama Canal
Addition to the Monroe Doctrine that says we will intervene in Latin America if necessary Bad Neighbor Policy
Roosevelt's parading of the Great White Fleet around the world was a demonstration of his policy of.... Big Stick Diplomacy
Who was the first president to win the Nobel Peace Prize, and why did he get it? Theodore Roosevelt; worked out peace between Japan and Russia
The Progressive Movement wanted solutions to problems created by ____________ and _______________. Industrialization and urbanization
Name three main problems that the Progressive Movement wanted to solve. Working/living conditions, disease/pollution, child labor
Journalists who brought awful working conditions to the public's attention; told about problems but offered no solutions Muckrakers
Why was the Progressive Movement brought about by the middle class? The upper class didn't want business regulation and the lower class didn't have enough of a voice to fix it.
True or false: The Progressive Movement worked to make our government more democratic. True
What three political reforms were brought about by the Progressive Movement that made the government more democratic? Initiative, referendum, recall
Allows citizens to propose new bills, not just Congress Initiative
Allows citizens to vote directly on certain bills Referendum
Says that if a government official is corrupt or commits a crime, they can be removed from office Recall
Constitutional amendment that allows direct election of Senators by the people 17th Amendment
Company that had several women die when a fire broke out in the factory and they couldn't get out because the doors were locked Triangle Shirt Waist Company
Movement to ban alcohol mainly led by Christian women's organizations Temperance
What was the basis for the temperance movement? Said that alcohol causes domestic violence and other problems
Constitutional amendment banning alcohol 18th Amendment
What was the main negative effect of the temperance movement? Start of organized crime (bootlegging, speakeasies, mafia)
Roosevelt's plan to both improve working conditions and conserve resources Square Deal
Roosevelt proved that he was not just for the workers when he did this after a strike in Pennsylvania. Sent in the military to make them go back to work
What did Roosevelt think about trusts? He only wanted to get rid of "bad trusts" - ones that hurt people and the economy. Called the "trust buster"
What huge trust did Roosevelt break up that was owned by two of the most powerful men in America? Who were the men? Northern Insurance Company; JP Morgan and James Hill
What trust did Taft break up when he got into office that made Roosevelt angry? Why did it make him so angry? US Steel; Roosevelt considered it a "good trust."
Who was the author of The Jungle? Upton Sinclair
What was the impact of Upton Sinclair's book The Jungle? Told about awful working conditions and sanitation in a meat packaging factory and led to more government regulation of industry
What two laws were passed partly because of Upton Sinclair's book The Jungle? Meat Inspection Act, Pure Food and Drug Act
Law that required that the USDA inspected meat Meat Inspection Act
Law that created the FDA Pure Food and Drug Act
Theodore Roosevelt's biggest accomplishments were in the area of... Conservation
Name two accomplishments TR made in conservation. Set aside 120 million acres of forest for preservation, created Boy Scouts and Sierra Club
Economic downturn in 1907 that caused Wall Street to go down and people to take all kinds of money out of banks Roosevelt Panic
Why did the Roosevelt Panic begin? Insider trading on stocks due to no government regulation of Wall Street
What was one positive effect of the Roosevelt Panic? Creation of the precursor to the Federal Reserve
Who did Roosevelt designate to run for president after his second term? William H. Taft
Name two ways that Roosevelt increased the power of the President. Initiated reforms to "tame" capitalism; showed that US was a world power (Great White Fleet)
During Taft's presidency, the Conservative Republicans wanted a ______ tariff. High
During Taft's presidency, the Progressive Republicans wanted a _____ tariff. Low
What approach did Taft take to the tariff, and what was the effect? He tried to lower it, but he was so hands-off in Congress that it was actually raised.
Taft replaced Roosevelt's Big Stick Policy with... Dollar Diplomacy
Taft's policy of the US investing in countries to gain power (especially in Latin America) Dollar Diplomacy
What did Taft do when flare-ups occurred in Latin American countries? Used the military to stop them
Name two "good trusts" that Taft broke up. Standard Oil, US Steel
What party did Theodore Roosevelt form when he couldn't take the Republican nomination from Taft in 1912? Progressive (Bull Moose) Party
Who won the election of 1912 (Taft v. Roosevelt v. Wilson) and why? Wilson; Taft and Roosevelt split the Republican vote
Why was it unsettling that Eugene Debbs got 6% of the popular vote in the 1912 election? He was a socialist, and many of his voters were laborers, meaning that there was unrest within the working class.
What made up the "Triple Wall of Privilege" that Wilson wanted to attack? Tariff, banks, big trusts
How did Wilson attack the tariff? Underwood Tariff
How did Wilson attack banks? Federal Reserve Act
How did Wilson attack big trusts? Clayton Anti-Trust Act
Law that lowered tariff but raised taxes and created the graduated income tax Underwood Tariff
Law that created the Federal Reserve that regulates currency in the US Federal Reserve Act
Law that gave teeth to the Sherman Anti-Trust Act - forbid price discrimination and false advertising and exempted labor unions from being considered trusts Clayton Anti-Trust Act
Who was the first Jew appointed to the Supreme Court? Louis Brandeis
Name 4 things that Wilson did that made him less imperialistic than his predecessors. Repealed Panama Canal Polls Act; gave territorial status to the Philippines; purchased Virgin Islands from Denmark, removing a European power from the Western Hemisphere; used military in Latin American countries when war broke out, but not so aggressive
Revolutionary who overthrew the original Mexican government and made it a dictatorship Victoriano Huerta
What did Wilson do when Huertes took over Mexico? Didn't recognize his government and armed revolutionaries to overthrow him
Two prominent Mexican revolutionaries that Wilson armed to overthrow Huerta Poncho Villa, Coranza
What event happened in Mexico that made Wilson want to send in the military? US sailors captured outside Mexico
Who became Mexico's new president when Huerta resigned? Coranza
What did Poncho Villa do to the US after Huerta was overthrown? Began raiding US towns
Name the three main causes of WWI. Nationalism; secret alliances; militarism (army buildup)
What three countries made up the Central Powers in WWI? Austria-Hungary, Germany, Ottoman Empire (Turkey)
What countries made up the Allied Powers in WWI? France, Britain, Serbia, Australia, USA
What position did the US take at the start of WWI? Neutral
What did Germany do that made many Americans want to get involved in WWI? Unrestricted submarine warfare - sinking of the Lucitania
Pledge signed by Germany that said they would stop their submarine warfare if we wouldn't get involved in the war Sussex Pledge
What were the final two factors that made us join WWI? Germany breaks Sussex Pledge; Zimmerman Telegram
Telegram sent from Germany to Mexico telling them to keep attacking us so we wouldn't join the war Zimmerman Telegram
The only member of Congress to vote against the US joining WWI Jeanette Rankin
What were the 6 main concepts of Wilson's 14 Points? Demilitarization; freedom of the seas (no submarine warfare); self-determination for countries (no imperialism); no secret alliances; creation of League of Nations
Committee designed to "sell" WWI through pamphlets, songs, etc. Committee on Public Information
Leader of Committee on Public Information George Creel
What two laws were passed in response to anti-German sentiment in America during WWI? Espionage Act, Sedition Act
Law designed to weed out and deport spies during WWI Espionage Act
Law that forbade criticism of WWI or the president Sedition Act
Organization designed to jump start the economy in order to pay for WWI War Industries Board
Constitutional amendment that gave women the right to vote 19th Amendment
True or false: WWI was a total war for America. True
How was WWI a total war in America? The US almost completely fed and supplied the Allies and had to change their everyday lives in order to do so.
Leader of the Food Administration Herbert Hoover
Organization that encouraged people to conserve food and energy during WWI Food Administration
In what two ways did the government pay for WWI? Raise taxes; liberty bonds
A bond people could buy during WWI that the government would pay back with interest after the war Liberty bond
Law that said all men ages 18-45 must sign up for the draft Selective Service Act
What three things did the US bring to the Allies? Lots of soldiers, lots of weapons, huge boost in morale
What invention was hugely important to the way WWI was fought? Machine gun
The day Germany signed the armistice that ended WWI later became the holiday known as... Verterans' Day
What was the main problem after WWI? What should we do with Germany?
What was the difference between what the US wanted to do with Germany after WWI and what the rest of the Allies wanted to do? The US wanted to fix the causes of the war, and everyone else wanted to punish/embarrass Germany or gain land.
When Wilson went to discuss Germany's fate after WWI, he didn't take a single member of the ___________ party with him. Republican
Who were the members of the "Big Four" that met after WWI? USA, Britain, Italy, France
What were the 3 results of the meeting of the Big Four after WWI? Creation of League of Nations (US doesn't join); Germany signs Treaty of Versailles; US signs its own treaty with Germany
What three things did Germany agree to under the Treaty of Versailles? Must pay $33 billion in reparations; can no longer have military; must sign War Guilt Clause
Clause of Treaty of Versailles that said Germany must admit WWI was their fault War Guilt Clause
What platform did Harding run on in the election of 1920 that allowed him to win? "Return to normalcy"
Period focused on a fear of communism Red Scare
What 3 things caused the Red Scare? Bolshevik Revolution in Russia; Eugene Debbs's success in the presidential election; growing number of labor strikes in US
Fear of communism fueled _______ feelings in many Americans. Nativist
Series of raids conducted on those suspected of being communist; done without a warrant Palmer Raids
Attorney General who led anti-communist raids Mitchell Palmer
Two Italians who were the "face" of the Red Scare and were executed for a crime they may not have committed Saco and Vanzetti
What nativist organization reached its peak in the 20s? KKK
Law that only allowed 3% of the immigrants currently in the country to come to America Emergency Quota Act
The Emergency Quota Act favored immigrants from what part of the world? Northwest Europe (Britain, France, etc.)
One of the most notorious mobsters who ran Chicago Al Capone
Case involving a teacher who broke the law by teaching evolution Scopes trial
Secretary of the Treasury who pushed for low taxes, a balanced budgets, and paying off debt Andrew Melon
Mass production was made easier with the invention of the... Assembly line
Although the economy during the 20s seemed great, this action would soon cause its downfall. Overinflation of the stock market through credit
Advertising became a big industry after ______ invented the ______. Marconi; radio
Who invented the airplane? Wright brothers
Who went on the first transatlantic flight? Lindburgh
What was the first full-length movie in the US and what was it about? Birth of a Nation; glorifies KKK
Generation of young unmarried women who wore short skirts, drank, smoked, etc. Flappers
Celebration of African American culture Harlem Renaissance
What type of music emerged from the Harlem Renaissance? Jazz
Leader of the "Back to Africa" movement Marcus Garvey