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8 Hist Ch 12 BJU AR

TermDefinition
abolitionists Those who wanted to abolish slavery, began with reformers such as Jonathan Edwards.
Asahel Nettleton Evangelist who insisted on calm and order at his revivals.
camp meetings Revivals in Kentucky and Tennesse, which were at that time the frontier and considered the "west."
canal a shallow, manmade water highway that connects two bodies of water
Charles Finney Famous revivalist of the 2nd Great Awakening who watered down doctrine to win converts.
clipper ship A sailing vessel designed for increased speeds developed in the 1840's. Donald McKay's design outpaced the others.
Commodore Matthew Perry Successfully attempted to secure a trade treaty with Japan in 1854.
cotton gin A machine for cleaning the seeds from cotton fibers, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793
Cumberland Gap a natural passage through the mountain barrier
Cyrus McCormick American inventor and industrialist, he invented the mechanical reaper and harvesting machine that quickly cut down wheat.
Daniel Boone a Kentuckian woodsman who was hired to work on the Wilderness Road
Elias Howe Patented a hand cranked sewing machine in 1846.
Eli Whitney American inventor of the cotton gin
Elizabeth Cady Stanton One of two of the most famous female abolitionists and leaders of the women's right movement. She, with Lucretia Mott, organized the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848.
Erie Canal opened in 1825 and connected the Hudson River in New York with Lake Erie
factory system Collected many workers in one place, where they turned out many similar items in one day.
Francis Cabot Lowell A New England cloth maker, organized a mill town for girls in Waltham, Massachusetts.
German immigrants Protestant, had more money, settled in the Midwest, farmed or owned their own businesses
Great Wagon Road a road in the Appalachians, formerly an Iroquois path, that was eventually traveled by thousands of settlers
Horace Mann Reformer who developed the first public high schools in Massachusetts in the 1820's.
Industrial Revolution A period during the late eighteenth century when machine power was substituted for human power, making it more economical to manufacture goods in factories than at home. New England was affected the most
interchangeable parts An improvement of the factory system by inventor Eli Whitney. Producing large numbers of each part via molds.
Irish immigrants Cattholic, very poor, remained in the big Northeast cities, worked in the factories.
Isaac Singer Patented a foot powered sewing machine in 1851.
John Deere American blacksmith that was responsible for inventing the steel plow. This new plow was much stronger than the old iron version; therefore, it made plowing farmland in the west easier, making expansion faster.
labor union An organization of workers that tries to improve working conditions, wages, and benefits for its members.
locks water compartments that can be opened and shut
Lucretia Mott One of two of the most famous female abolitionists who decided to call for women's rights. Helped organize the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848.
mass production Process of making large quantities of a product quickly and cheaply
National Road the first federally funded highway, which went from Cumberland, Maryland to Vandalia, Illinois
Peter Cooper built the first major trial of a railroad, the Tom Thumb
pony express began in 1860 and lasted for a year and a half; riders carried the mail on horseback from St. Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento, California
Ralph Waldo Emerson Henry David Thoreau and he were ell known transcendentalists.
reaper A machine that cuts grain in a field.
Reform Movement period when Americans were inspired to improve themselves and the world around them. Education, abolition and women's rights were issues of concern.
Robert Fulton credited with building the first commercially successful steamboat in 1807
Robert Gray An explorer and captain, he was the first American to engage in the new fur trade.
romanticism A philosophy which placed a great emphasis on emotion and intuition.
Samuel F. B. Morse an American artist who solved communication problems by inventing the telegraph
Samuel Slater "Father of the American Factory System," British mechanic that memorized British textile machines and reproduced them in America.
Second Great Awakening A spiritual revival that began in American colleges (starting with Yale), and camp meetings on the frontier, that resulted in many salvations.
Seneca Falls Convention A meeting in New York to discuss women's rights.
steamboats large, steam powered boats that could easily paddle upstream
Timothy Dwight Grandson of preacher Jonathan Edwards, began a revival at Yale University when he, as President of the University, began teaching Bible doctrine.
transcendentalism A philosophy that believes man is divine and can rely on himself alone.
turnpikes additional roads that were built by private companies hoping to make a profit
Wilderness Road a westward expansion of the Great Wagon Road
William Ellery Channing A persuasive Unitarian preacher and writer in Boston.
Created by: Mrs_CC