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VA/US Midterm TERMS

DefinitionTerm
Pilgrims pact to form their ideal utopian society covenant community
where people vote on every issue; today, we live in a representative one where we elect someone to vote on most issues direct democracy
Agreement made about the ship by the Pilgrims to form a covenant community Mayflower Compact
first elected national assembly in the New World; today called the General Assembly House of Burgesses
large scale farms in the South where the slaves and indentured servants worked plantation
tobacco, rice, in indigo in the South cash crops
a religious movement that swept both Europe and the colonies in the mid-1700s. Great Awakening
name for the voyage of slaves from Africa, across the Atlantic and to the New World Middle Passage
people have the power in government popular sovereignty
When the British prohibited settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains Proclamation of 1763
joint stock company that financed the Jamestown settlement Virginia Company of London
English act that placed taxes on legal documents in the Colonies; contributed the American Revolution--"no taxation without representation" Stamp Act
colonists threw tea from England into Boston Harbor in protest of the new tax on tea Boston Tea Party
War between the French and English; English won and the French were kicked out of North America French and Indian War
British troops fired on anti-British demonstrators. Boston Massacre
fought a brief skirmish with British troops at Lexington and Concord. minutemen
Believed in complete independence from England patriots
Remained loyal to Britain, based on cultural and economic ties – Believed that taxation of the colonies was justified to pay for British troops to protect American settlers from Indian attacks Loyalists or Tories
The many colonists who tried to stay as uninvolved in the war as possible neutrals
Benjamin Franklin negotiated a Treaty of Alliance with this country causing them to help the Americans against the English; if they didn't help us, the Americans would not have won the Revolutionary War France
Leader of the American (Continental) Army George Washington
The last battle of the Revolution, when the French navy cut off the British Yorktown
Provided for a weak national government· Gave Congress no power to tax or regulate commerce among the states· Provided for no common currency· Gave each state one vote regardless of size· Provided for no executive or judicial branch Articles of Confederation
The House of Representatives is based on a state's _______________. population
counted slaves as part of the population Three-Fifths Compromise
Avoided a too powerful government by creating these three co-equal branches of government judicial, legislative, and executive
central government (in America, our central government is in DC) shares power with state governments Federalism
Anti-Federalist didn't support the Constitution because it lacked these to protect individual rights Bill of Rights
won by Thomas Jefferson, was the first American presidential election in which power was peacefully transferred from one party to another Election of 1800
established the power of the federal courts to declare laws unconstitutional “judicial review” Marbury v. Madison
prohibited the states from taxing agencies of the federal government (elastic clause and implied powers) McCulloch v. Maryland
doubled the size of the United States overnight Louisiana Purchase
this war produced an American claim to the Oregon Territory, and increased migration of American settlers into Florida, which was later acquired by treaty from Spain War of 1812
The American continents should not be considered for future colonization by any European powers Monroe Doctrine
Famous battle in Texas against the Mexicans, in which a small band of Americans fought to the death against the much larger Mexican army Alamo
An American victory in this war resulted in the acquisition of New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, California and part of Colorado. Mexican War
Belief that America would eventually stretch from the Atlantic to Pacific Oceans. Manifest Destiny
several tribes were relocated from Atlantic Coast states to Oklahoma) or confined to reservations Trail of Tears
Power granted to the President to prevent passage of legislation presidential veto
A practice of using public offices to benefit members of the victorious party spoils system
The economic situation that resulted from reckless speculation that led to bank failures and dissatisfaction with the use of state banks as depositories for public funds Panic of 1837
These states developed an industrial economy based on manufacturing. They favored high protective tariffs to protect Northern manufacturers from foreign competition Northern
These states developed an agricultural economy consisting of a slavery-based system of plantations in the lowlands along the Atlantic and in the Deep South, and small subsistence farmers in the foothills and valleys of the Appalachian Mountains. Southern
As the United States expanded westward, the conflict over _______________ grew more bitter and threatened to tear the country apart. slavery
people who are against slavery Abolitionists
a best-selling novel that inflamed Northern abolitionist sentiment. Southerners were frightened by the growing strength of Northern abolitionism Uncle Tom's Cabin
drew an east-west line through the Louisiana Purchase, with slavery prohibited above the line and allowed below, except that slavery was allowed in Missouri, north of the line. Missouri Compromise of 1820
California entered as a free state, while the new Southwestern territories acquired from Mexico would decide on their own. Compromise of 1850
repealed the Missouri Compromise line by giving people in Kansas and Nebraska the choice whether to allow slavery in their states (“popular sovereignty”). Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
party created to end slavery; Lincoln was a member Republican
to withdraw from the Union (country); this is what many southern states did. secede
Court case that overturned efforts to limit the spread of slavery and outraged Northerners Dred Scott
which required slaves who escaped to free states to be forcibly returned to their owners in the South Fugitive Slave Act
Lincoln speech that said The nation could not continue half-free, half-slave. The issue must be resolved "A House Divided"
meeting held by Elizabeth Stanton and Susan Anthony regarding women's rights Seneca Falls Convention
resulted in the secession of several Southern states who feared that Lincoln would try to abolish slavery Election of 1860 (Lincoln)
Opening confrontation of the Civil War Fort Sumter
issued by Lincoln after Battle of Antietam; freed slaves in the Confederate states only Emancipation Proclamation
Turning point of the Civil War Gettysburg
Site of Lee’s surrender to Grant Appomattox
Lincoln's speech that described the Civil War as a struggle to preserve a nation that was dedicated to the proposition that “all men are created equal” and that was ruled by a government “of the people, by the people, and for the people.” Gettysburg Address
What the south was called during the Civil War Confederacy
what the north was called during the Civil War Union
period after the Civil War the tried to rebuild and help African-Americans in the South Reconstruction
Slavery was abolished permanently in the United States. 13th Amendment
believed in aggressively guaranteeing voting and other civil rights to African Americans. They clashed repeatedly with Lincoln’s successor as President, Andrew Johnson Radical Republicans
States were prohibited from denying equal rights under the law to any American. 14th Amendment
Voting rights were guaranteed regardless of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude” (former slaves). 15th Amendment
13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments are called these Civil War Amendments
After the Election of 1876 where there was no clear winner, this compromise said in return for support in the electoral college vote from Southern Democrats, the Republicans agreed to end the military occupation of the South Compromise of 1877
long period after the compromise of 1877 in which African Americans in the South were denied the full rights of American citizenship. "Jim Crow Era"
intensified the westward movement of settlers into the states between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Ocean Transcontinental Railroad
which gave free public land in the western territories to settlers who would live on and farm the land. Homestead Act of 1862
· Southerners and African Americans, in particular, moved _______ to seek new opportunities after the Civil War. West
immigrants' process of assimilation into the US culture and customs "melting pot"
These two acts effectively cut off most immigration to America for the next several decades Chinese Exclusionary Act of 1882 and Immigration Restriction Act of 1921
Court case where the Supreme Court ruled that “separate but equal” did not violate the 14th Amendment, upholding the “Jim Crow” laws of the era. Plessy v. Ferguson
African Americans began to move to Northern cities in search of jobs and to escape poverty and discrimination in the South "Great Migration"
Period that used government to reform problems created by industrialization Progressive Era
Amendment that allowed direct election of U.S. Senators 17th Amendment
Strikes during the Progressive Period Haymarket, Pullman, and Homestead
Act which Prevents any business structure that “restrains trade” (monopolies) Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Expands Sherman Anti-Trust Act; outlaws price-fixing; exempts unions from Sherman Act Clayton Anti-Trust Act
the right to vote suffrage
amendment which gained women the right to vote 19th Amendment
Created by: mrjbaker