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D - SS - Unit 6

History of Latin America - Columbian Exchange

What was a major consequence of the encounter of the Spanish with the Aztecs and Incas? the creation of a new Spanish empire
What was a consequence of the Spanish conquest of Latin America? a trading culture called the Columbian Exchange
What does the Columbian Exchange describe? the exchange of crops, goods, animals, and diseases between Europe and its colonies in the Americas
What were some of the impacts of the Columbian Exchange? decline of indigenous population, agricultural change & introduction of the horse
What caused the decline of the indigenous population? diseases brought by European explorers such as smallpox, measles, whooping cough, and influenza
Approximately how many of the indigenous populations died? millions (estimated at 80% of the population)
What new foods were brought to Europe through the Columbian Exchange? vegetables like corn, tomatoes, peppers, pumpkins, squash, and cacao beans
What new foods were brought to Latin America through the Columbian Exchange? wheat, barley, sugarcane, and livestock like cattle, pigs, and sheep
How did the Columbian Exchange affect food production and human population? food production increased which helped to increase human populations
What were horses used for? transportation, labor & hunting
How did horses change the life of Native Americans on the plains? they allowed Native Americans to hunt buffalo and other items
What was the major method of transportation for people until the early 20th century? horses
What were the plans of many Spanish and Portuguese settlers that moved to the Americas? to mine for gold and silver and grow sugarcane to export back to Europe
Since diseases killed many of the indigenous people in Latin America, who did the Europeans bring over to work in the sugarcane fields? black slaves from Africa
Why were Africans preferred as laborers over Native Americans? they had more immunity (resistance) to European diseases
Why was African slavery very important to the development of South America? it helped the sugarcane plantation economies grow
What was the main source of income for Portuguese settlers in Brazil? growing and selling sugarcane
What were the children of Europeans that married black slaves called? Mulatto
African slavery was also very important in the development of what area? the Caribbean islands known as the West Indies
What was the system of trade between Africa, the Americas, and Europe known as? the Triangular Trade
Created by: lprinke