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Unit 5 Agriculture

Smoke the dab am i right kids

Define Agriculture Agriculture is the developing of crops and livestock for the use of humans.
Domestication The process of genetically altering a plant or animal species through selective breeding so that it becomes dependent upon humans
Neolithic Stone Age
First Agricultural Revolution The period in history when humans first began to deliberately raise plants and animals for food or other purposes
Carl Sauer An influential geographer who sought answers to the question: where did agriculture start and how? He developed an influential theory about domestication
Columbian Exchange Brought European crops and animals to the Americas, and introduced Europeans to Native American crops
Polder Area of land that has been reclaimed from the sea
Second Agricultural Revolution Refrigeration and machinery (around the 1800s) tractor is most associated
Irrigation Act of supplying crops with water
Terracing Digging into a hillside to create steps so you can have steps in that land to farm
Deforestation The cutting down of forests in order to use the land for agricultural purposes
Reclamation Taking land that was waterlogged, draining it, and farming on it
Substance Agriculture The production of food primarily for consumption by the farmer’s family
Commercial Agriculture The production of food primarily for sale off the farm
Pastoral Nomad-ism A form of subsistence agriculture based on the herding of domesticated animals
Transhumance Mountain nomad-ism in which animals are moved from lowland pastures to highland pastures in the summer
Shifting Cultivation A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another
Slash and Burn Fields are prepared by clearing them and burning the brush
Fallow Fields Fields are farmed for a short period and then left fallow for several years
Swidden Cleared land
Intensive Substance Agriculture A form of subsistence ag in which farmers expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land
Double Cropping Planting and harvesting two crops in the same year
Plantation A large commercial farm that specializes in one or two crops
Crop Rotation Rotating the type of crop grown each year
Milkshed The area around a market from which milk can be supplied without spoiling
Horticulture Growing fruits vegetables and flowers
Ranching Commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area
Ester Boserup Studied this process and said that farmers increase supply by intensification of production(how a rapidly growing pop puts pressure on farming systems to produce enough food)
Boserup’s Thesis(reversal of Ester) As population grows farmers are forced to adopt more intensive methods to feed the
Subsidies Government assistance for farmers
Von Thunen model Helps explain choices made by farmers
Transportation Threshold A maximum distance it can be transported and still be sold at a profit
Green Revolution The invention and rapid diffusion of more productive agricultural techniques from 1950s into the 80s
Plant Hybridization Crossbreeding plants to create “miracle seeds”
GMO Genetically Modified Organism(s)
Agribusiness Term that refers to large corporations that make their money from selling farm machinery, equipment, and products
Metes and Bounds A survey system in which natural features are used to demarcate individual parcels of land
Demarcate To show the limits or edges of something
Land ordinance of 1785 Created the township and range system
Sections 1-square mile land parcels
Township 36 section land square
Long Lot System Long rectangles that help with getting access to water
Created by: Jacoba.trull



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