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CaP Industrial

Crime and Punishment (Industrial)

Date? 1750-1900
Who were the radical thinkers? What did they believe in Believed in humanitarian, poverty causes crime, not their fault and that if we end poverty you can end crime
What were the continued old views? Born a criminal aka, criminal class. Criminality can't e solved
What were the 'penny dreadfuls'? Books and magazines with gory details of crime, reinforced old views
What were the features of crime? Petty theft most common (50%-80%), violent crime rare, mostly men, but rise in prostitution. Most crime not carefully planned
What effect did the end of Napoleonic war (1815) have on crime? Soldiers have no jobs on return, munitions production ends, more jobs lost, poor soldiers returned kept weapons so theft
What effect did the economic depression (1815-1822) have on crime? Wages fall to 1/3, prices rise e.g. bread. High unemployed population
What effect did urbanisation have on crime? Poor housing (e.g. White Chapel, no lights), more cities, closer together, lead to lots of theft
Did the courts change? Basically the same, but lawyers were introduced, more formal and longer trails
Who was John Fielding (1750s)? Made unofficial police force (Bow Street Runners) - 68 by 1800, like constables. Published newspaper 'Hue + Cry', had details about crimes, wanted posters etc. Gov give £400 a year. He wanted police nationwide but couldn't due to resistance and cost
Who was Robert Peel? Made Metropolitan Police (1829). Home secretary. 3000 men with wistles, uniforms and trunchens. Gov organised, official. Just in London, 1835 - Municipal Corporations Act, towns allowed to set up own force.
What opposition did the Met face? Cost. Belief that Gov shouldn't get involved in civilians lives. Fear of the police being used as an army to control people, rather than keeping hem safe.
What happened after 1850? New tech: 1880s, photos of crime scene and CID (detectives), 1897 finger printing
What changes were there to capital punishment? MORE HUMANE. Long drop breaks neck, instant death. Hangings behind prison walls, sometimes private, sometimes on roof. Not just to be humane, but to make crowds less rowdy
Who was Elizabeth Fry? Made Newgate prison better. Prisoners divided by severity of crime. Taught to read, knit and sew. Banned alcohol. Only worked with women. Was a Quaker and wasn't run by government
Who was John Howard? High Sheriff of Bedfodshire, shocked by state of prisoners. Introduces 2 laws, Discharged Prisoners Act, ends release fee and the Health of Prisoners Act, improving hygiene in prisons. Wrote book "State of Prisons".
What were some limitations of his work? Suggested that prisoners should have own cell and the wardens get payed a wage. But wasn't introduced until after death
What new prisons did they make? Made new prison, Millbank Prison £450,000, got cracks and riot etc, disaster.
What was the separate system? Hard labour, shot duty, picking oakum, blindfolds, high suicide rates, no communication. Bit harsh so changed to 'silent system' so could see each other, but no talking. 1860s 'Garroting Panic' causes prison to go harsh again bring back flogging.
What was transportation? Deporting criminals. Initially America, after 1776 (independence) went to Australia. 7yrs, 14yrs or life. Ended in 1848, 160,000 people transorted
Why were people transported? Alternative to capital punishment, especially after bloody code as felt bad so sent them away instead of killing them. Prions full, using old ships 'prison hulks', horrific conditions. Transportation was a useful source of information
Created by: MattTheBoiInit