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Enlightenment and Revolutions
|An absolute ruler is a ruler who has largely unchecked power; all power was centralized in the monarch
|Suggests that God had placed placed them on the throne, and as such, they were only responsible only to God, no one else
|King Louis XIV
|King of France, he stated "I am the State", proclaimed himself as "The Sun King" and had the Palace of Versailles built in his honor
|Ivan the Terrible
|First Czar, centralized his power through brute force, reinforced the Orthodox Christian Church as the official Church of Russia
|Peter the Great
|Modernized and westernized his country. Peter had St. Petersburg which served as the "gateway to the West."
|Trampled rights laid out in the Magna Carta such as the right to trial by jury, and the right of Parliament to control the "purse." This led the Parliament to revolt, leading to civil war
|King George III
|Absolute monarch for the US, who pushed high tariffs on the Colonist to fund his kingdom and wars
|The English Civil War
|Parliament revolts against King Charles I for his abuse of power
|Forces of the Parliament
|Forces of King Charles I
|The Restoration of the Monarchy
|Dissatisfaction with Cromwell's rule causes Parliament to invite King Charles II to retake the English throne. Tries to rule as an absolute monarch under "divine right" once again
|The Glorious Revolution
|Parliament invites Mary II & William to take throne in James II's place
|The English Bill of Rights
|Mary & William signed an English Bill of Rights in 1689 creating a limited monarchy in which Parliament has greater power than the monarch and the law
|Life in a "state of nature," is "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short." Believed the role of the government is to control man. Citizens enter a "social contract."
|Written by Thomas Hobbes
|Supported the Parliament against absolutism. Believed in natural laws that existed in the in the state of nature, which are the right to life, liberty, and property, and they are unalienable. The role of the government was to protect these rights
|Two Treatises on Government
|Written by John Locke
|Baron de Montesquieu
|Believed absolute power corrupted absolutely. Advocated for the separation of powers; government power had to be divided to provide checks and balances
|In the Spirit of Laws
|Written by Montesquieu
|People are the "rulers," and those that hold positions in government are to do nothing more than carry out the will of the people. Expression of the "general will" only to maintain the "public good"
|The Social Contract
|Written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau
|Separation of Church and State. Believed religious fanaticism led to religious persecution-and religious persecution led to religious conflict.
|The American Revolution
|Inspired by Declaration of Independence, Outcome was separation of powers, separation of church, and Bill of Rights
|The French Revolution
|Inspired by idea of equality, Declaration of the Rights of Man, overthrow absolute monarchy. Outcome was separation of church, and rolling back liberal Enlightenment reform
|The Storming of the Bastille
|3rd Estate revolts against King Louis XVI.
|The Reign of Terror
|Dissatisfaction with Legislative Assembly allows radicals to take over creating the National Convention. King Louis executed.
|Led the Reign of Terror of the Jacobins. Executed after Reign of Terror ends
|Stages coup d'etat to become emperor
|Established a single uniform legal code for the entire French Empire