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60s: Civil Rights

The Civil Rights Movement

TermDefinition
Thurgood Marshall Lawyer who argued the case Brown v. Board of Education, later became the first African American Supreme Court Justice
Martin Luther King Jr. One of the founding members of the SCLC, he preached civil disobedience as a way to achieve the goals of the movement. Famous for his “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” and the March on Washington.
Malcolm X Member of the Nation of Islam who preached separation of the races. Broke from the Nation and moderated his views following a pilgrimage to Mecca.
Booker T. Washington A former slave, this man set up the Tuskegee normal and Industrial Institute. Believed that the best way for blacks to gain rights was through improving their economic condition.
WEB Dubois One of the founders of the Niagara Movement and the NAACP, this man was a harsh critic of Booker T. Washington and believed that only social agitation could achieve the goals of the Civil Rights Movement.
Stokely Carmichael Member of the SNCC who eventually breaks with group and founds “black power” movement.
Emmett Till 14 year old Chicago boy whose gruesome killing brought national attention to the racial problems in the south.
Medgar Evers Field Secretary of the Mississippi Chapter of the NAACP who was assassinated in 1963. His assassin was not convicted until 1994.
James Meredith Civil Rights Activist who became the first African American student at the University of Mississippi. Was later shot and wounded during his March Against Fear.
Huey Newton This founder of the Black Panther Party was convicted of killing a police officer, but had the sentence overturned less than two years later.
Ralph Abernathy Succeeded Martin Luther King as head of the SCLC and helped carry out the poor people's campaign.
Rosa Parks Civil Rights activist whose refusal to relinquish her seat on a public bus to a white man precipitated the 1955 Montgomery bus boycott.
Bobby Seale  One of the founders of the Black Panther Party.
Watts Riots Violence following the arrest of a black man charged with reckless driving. Result: 34 dead, 1,032 injured and 3,952 arrested. Led to the Kerner commission making recommendations to try to remedy moving toward "two societies, one black, one white"
Selma to Montgomery March Made famous by the violence that occurred at the Edmund Pettus Bridge and the deaths of Rev. James Reeb and Viola Luizzo.
March on Washington This demonstration is where Martin Luther King gave his famous “I Have a Dream Speech”
Greensboro Sit-ins Protest Movement begun at the Woolworth lunch counter designed to challenge segregation
Montgomery Bus Boycott Organized movement designed to end segregation of public transportation systems. Brought Martin Luther King Jr. into the national spotlight
Freedom Rides Challenged segregation in interstate bus travel. Subject to violence and bombings, forcing Robert Kennedy to provide them protection.
Jim Crow Laws Laws passed in many southern states that segregated most aspects of life from the Reconstruction era until the mid 20th century.
13th Amendment Formally abolished Slavery
14th Amendment Former Slaves are given “equal protection” under the law.
15th Amendment Gave freed slaves the right to vote.
24th Amendment Abolished the poll tax
Plessy v. Ferguson Ruled that segregation was legal as long as facilities were “separate, but equal”
Brown v. Board of Education Ruled that segregation was inherently unequal.
Voting Rights Act of 1965 Gave federal gov’t increased oversight of local elections, allowed federal officials to challenge poll taxes, resulted in an increased voter registration among African Americans and the election of many more minority officials
Civil Rights Act of 1964 Signed into law by Lyndon B. Johnson, it gave African Americans increased voter rights, abolished segregation in interstate commerce and banned employers from refusing to hire someone based on race or other biases.
Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln’s declaration that, “that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free."
NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Interracial organization working for the rights of black in “to opposing racism; and to ensure African Americans their constitutional rights.” One of the founding members was W.E.B. Dubois.
Letter from a Birmingham Jail A response by Martin Luther King to white pastors who had criticized his involvement in civil rights protests in their city.
CORE Congress of Racial Equality. Interracial American organization established by James Farmer in 1942 to improve race relations and end discriminatory policies through direct-action projects. Organized the Freedom Rides.
SCLC Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Begun by Martin Luther King Jr. and his followers, played a large role in the March on Washington, and coordinated and assisted local organizations fighting for Civil Rights.
Black Panthers Begun by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale, this organization was started to promote self-defense against police brutality.
SNCC Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. Brought to national attention by the sit-ins, this organization focused on nonviolent methods. Strongly supported the Freedom Rides. 
I Have a Dream Title of a speech given in front of a crowd of 200,000 people during the March on Washington
Little Rock Nine Group of students who desegregated their high school in Arkansas were collectively known as this.
Created by: mrfordglobal