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Ancient Rome

Monarchy A government ruled by a single person, usually called a king
Republic A form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting
Etruscans Members of a people who lived north of Rome, Rome's last 3 kings were from this group of people. They built huge temples and Rome's first sewers and Romans learned their alphabet and how to build an arch from them.
Tiber River a major river in Italy; Rome is built on its banks
Horatius He was a hero of early Rome, known for defending the bridge over the Tiber River against the Etruscans in 509 BCE. The Roman Republic was set up right after this battle.
Consuls Two officials from the patrician class were appointed each year of the Roman Republic to supervise the government and command the armies
Tribunes official who was elected by the plebeians to protect their interests
plebeians Farmers, merchants, and workers who made up most of the Roman population
senate A group of 300 men from the patrician order elected to govern Rome in the Roman Republic.
slaves Slavery was a significant part of Roman life. Almost 1/3 of the population were slaves. Slaves were conquered peoples brought by victorious Roman armies and included men, women, and children.
assembly Plebeian legislature; group of plebeians who participated in lawmaking
patricians The wealthy, hereditary aristocrats during the Roman era.
Julius Caesar 100-44 BC. Roman general who ended Roman Republic. Conquered Gaul with his powerful army. Made himself Roman dictator in 46 BC. Assassinated by Brutus and others in 44 BC because he was too powerful.
Augustus Caesar Also known as Octavius or Octavian; great nephew of Julius Caesar; 1st emperor of the Roman Empire
Pax Romana A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
Punic Wars A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.
Aqueducts Above ground structures used to carry water long distances so that the Roman cities had running water
legion A military unit of the ancient Roman army, made up of about 5,000 foot soldiers and a group of soldiers on horseback.
Colosseum A large arena in Rome where gladiator contests and other games and sporting events were held in Rome
Pantheon A domed temple in Rome that was completed in 27 BCE, and still stands today
Gladiator A Roman athlete, usually a slave, criminal, or prisoner of war, who was forced to fight for the entertainment of the public
Constantine (274 CE - 337 CE) Roman Emperor between 306 CE and 337 CE. He issued the Edict of Milan which outlawed the persecution of Christians. He also founded the city of Constantinople, the future capital of the Byzantine Empire.
Byzantine Empire (330-1453) The eastern half of the Roman Empire, which survived after the fall of the Western Empire at the end of the 5th century C.E. Its capital was Constantinople, named after the Emperor Constantine.
Created by: welalann
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