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USH Topic 12

JAHKMLHS Topic 12 World War I and the 1920s

TermDefinition
William II last German emperor (kaiser) and king of Prussia, whose bellicose policies helped to bring about World War I
“Over the top” action occurred as soldiers left the safety of their trenches to attack enemy trenches
Triple Entente alliance consisting of France, Britain, and Russia
Central Powers alliance which consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire.
contraband any property that is illegal to produce or possess--may be smuggled goods that are imported into or exported from a country in violation of its laws and may be primarily of a military nature
Western Front area of fighting in World War I was the critical area since whoever won here would win the war
Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated in Sarajevo and his death became the final reason for the outbreak of WWI
balance of power equal amount of strength sufficient to discourage or prevent one nation or party from imposing its will on or interfering with the interests of another nation.
militarism ideology that puts war and the use or threat of military force as the highest priority of a country to achieve its political goals
Lusitania in 1915 the sinking of this vessel which was carrying weapons, as well as passengers, began to turn American opinion against the Germans
mustard gas new weapon of WWI which caused the skin of victims to blister, the eyes to become very sore and victims to vomit, as well as causing internal and external bleeding and attacking the bronchial tubes, stripping off the mucous membrane.
Edith Cavell nurse who was executed by the Germans for treason because she assisted British prisoners of war in escaping
casualties participants in a military action who are killed, wounded, or missing
Triple Alliance partnership consisting of German, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
imperialism policy by which strong nations extend their political, military, and economic control over weaker territories
Sussex pledge promise made by Germany to warn ships that they were about to be sunk if the allies would have to remove the blockade of German.
nationalism strong desire of one for independence from foreign domination or to a strong sense of loyalty or devotion to one’s own country
Zimmermann Note telegram, intercepted by the British, encouraged Mexico to make war on the United States together with Germany
Alsace-Lorraine territory lost to Germany by France in 1871
No man’s land the ground, which was often lined with rows of barbed wire, between two opposing sets of trenches.
Manfred von Richthofen the Red Baron who shot down 80 allied planes before he was finally shot down and killed in 1918..
Gavrilo Princip this man provided the spark that set off World War I by assassinating the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary
trench warfare type of fighting in which the opposing sides attack, counterattack, and defend from areas dug into the ground.
U-boats vessel was used by Germany to attempt to blockade England, as well as to destroy merchant shipping
Selective Service Act passed in 1917 authorized a draft of young men for military service in Europe
Bernard Baruch head of the War Industries Board
Committee on Public information (CPI) educate the public about the causes and nature of the war
George Creel director of the CPI
conscientious objectors persons who cannot fight in a war because of their moral or religious beliefs
Espionage Act passed in 1917 allowed postal authorities to ban treasonable or seditious newspapers, magazines, or printed materials from the mail
Great Migration great movement of African Americans from the rural South to the industrial North
Schenck v. United States times when the need for public order is so pressing the First Amendment protections of speech to not apply
convoy group of merchant ships sailing together, protected by warships
Vladimir Lenin founded the Communist Party in Russia and led the Russian Revolution
John J. Pershing leader of the American forces as they enter World War I
American Expeditionary Force (AEF) United States’ forces in Europe during World War I
Fourteen Points statement of principles for world peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I
self-determination process by which a country determines its own statehood and forms its own allegiances and government.
"the changes cannot be made
League of Nations international organization established after World War I under the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles
Henry Cabot Lodge Republican senator who led the successful fight to keep the United States from joining the League of Nations after World War I
reparations payment for war damages
influenza flu virus
irreconcilables isolationist senators who oppose any treaty ending World War I that had a League of Nations folded into it
reservationists group of U.S. senators who were prepared to vote for the Treaty of Versailles as long as some changes were made to it
war guilt clause formally blamed Germany for World War I and charged her $33 billion
inflation general increase in prices and fall in the purchasing value of money
creditor nation country which is owed more money by other countries than it owes other countries
Henry Ford revolutionized the automobile industry with his assembly line and treatment of workers
mass production production of goods in large numbers through the use of machinery and assembly lines
Model T automobile manufactured by Henry Ford to be affordable on the mass market
scientific management approach to improving efficiency, in which experts looked at every step of a manufacturing process, trying to find ways to reduce time, effort, and expense
assembly lines arrangement of equipment and workers in which work passes from operation to operation in direct line until the product is completed
consumer revolution flood of new, affordable goods in the decades after World War I
installment buying method of purchase in which buyer makes a small down payment and then pays off the rest of the debt in regular monthly payments
bull market period of rising stock prices
buying on margin system of purchasing stocks in which a buyer pays a small percentage of the purchase price while the broker advances the rest
bear market period of falling stock prices
Warren G. Harding Presidential candidate from Ohio who promoted a “return to normalcy” following U.S. involvement in World War I
Andrew Mellon Secretary of the Treasury from 1921 to 1932 who played a significant role in reforming the U.S. tax structure by lowering marginal tax rates for individuals and businesses
Herbert Hoover Harding’s Secretary of Commerce who worked with business and labor leaders to achieve voluntary advancements
Teapot Dome scandal Harding’s Interior Secretary, Albert Fall, leased government oil reserves to private oilmen for bribes
Calvin Coolidge continued many of the pro-business policies of his predecessor; Silent Cal
Washington Naval Disarmament Conference meeting held in 1921 and 1922 where world leaders agreed to limit construction of warships
Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928 agreement in which as many as 62 nations agreed to outlaw war
Dawes Plan agreement in which the United States loaned money to Germany, allowing Germany to make reparation payments to Britain and France
modernism artistic and literary movement sparked by a break with past conventions
fundamentalism movement or attitude stressing strict and literal adherence to a set of basic religious principles
Scopes Trial 1925 legal test of a Tennessee school teacher for breaking a law that forbade teaching Darwin's theory of evolution
Clarence Darrow lawyer who is best known for his defense of John Scopes in 1925
William Jennings Bryan part of the prosecution of John Scopes, a Tennessee schoolteacher charged with violating state law by teaching evolution in 1925
Red Scare fear that communists were working to destroy the American way of life
Palmer Raids the series of sudden attacks in the early 1920s initiated by the Attorney General against suspected radicals and communists
Nicola Sacco Italian shoemaker convicted of murder and executed in 1927
Bartolomeo Vanzetti Italian fishmonger convicted of murder and executed in 1927
eugenics idea that the human race can be improved by controlling which people have children
quota system arrangement that limited the number of immigrants who could enter the United States from specific countries
Ku Klux Klan organization that promotes hatred and discrimination against specific ethnic, racial, and religious groups
Prohibition forbidding by law of the manufacture, transport, and sale of alcohol
Eighteenth Amendment constitutional addition banning the manufacture, distribution, and sale of alcohol in the United States
Volstead Act law enacted by Congress to enforce the Eighteenth Amendment
bootleggers one who sells illegal alcohol
Charlie Chaplin British comedian who produced, wrote, and directed many films throughout his career and is considered by many to be greatest comic artist in motion picture history
The Jazz Singer American musical released in 1927 that was the first feature-length movie with synchronized dialogue
Babe Ruth professional baseball player known for his showmanship and ability to hit homeruns
Charles Lindbergh American aviator who completed the first non-stop, solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean
flapper young woman from the 1920s who defied traditional rules of conduct and dress
Sigmund Freud developed psychological theories of the human psyche and therapies known as psychoanalysis
Lost Generation term for American writers of the 1920s marked by disillusion with World War I and a search for a new sense of meaning
F. Scott Fitzgerald American writer known for his depictions of American life in the 1920s, especially The Great Gatsby, published in 1925
Ernest Hemingway American writer who wrote in unadorned sentences; known for his adventurous life and novels such as The Sun Also Rises and For Whom the Bell Tolls.
Marcus Garvey a Jamaican immigrant who believed that African Americans should build a separate society; encouraged his followers to return to Africa, to help native people over throw white colonial oppressors; movement died down when he was convicted of mail fraud
jazz style of music that was invented by African American musicians especially from New Orleans in the early part of the twentieth century; very strong rhythms and often involves improvisation
Louis Armstrong trumpeter and singer who has been called "the single most important figure in the history of jazz" because he was one of the first great soloists of jazz music; pioneered a new style of singing called “scat.”
Bessie Smith the most successful black performing artist of her time; by the end of the 1920s, she had earned herself the title "Empress of the Blues”
Harlem Renaissance outpouring of creative expression in which Blacks proudly exalted in their Black culture and argued for a “New Negro” who was a full citizen and a social equal to whites
Claude McKay a novelist, poet, and Jamaican immigrant; verses urged African Americans to resist prejudice and discrimination; poems also expressed the pain of life in the black ghettos and the strain of being black in a world dominated by whites
Langston Hughes African American poet who described the rich culture of African American life using rhythms influenced by jazz music; wrote of African American hope and defiance, as well as the culture of Harlem
Zora Neale Hurston many of her writings portrayed the lives of poor, unschooled Southern blacks such as in Their Eyes Were Watching God
“Duke” Ellington the most prolific composer of the 20th Century is considered by many to be America’s greatest composer, bandleader, and recording artist; one of the founding fathers of jazz
Created by: jim.haferman