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Biotechnology-2

QuestionAnswer
What were the three options considered for increasing food production Agro chemical based agriculture organic agriculture farming genetically engineered crop based agriculture
Who is the father of Green Revolution Norman Ernest Borlaug
What is green revolution
Period in which significant increase in agricultural productivity of grains particularly wheat and rice was observed in 20th century resulting from introduction of improved crop varieties, better management particles, use of agrochemicals
What was the effect of Green Revolution Green revolution succeeded in tripling the food supply but yet it was not enough to feed the growing human population
What were the hindrances of Green Revolution For farmers in developing world Agro Chemicals are often too expensive, new varieties required large amount of fertilizers erasing concern about cost and minimising the use of fertilizers and Chemicals so that they are harmful effects are reduced
What are the solution to overcome the hindrances of Green Revolution Use of genetically modified crops
Two general strategies of gene cloning Gene addition, in which cloning is used to alter the characteristics of a plant by providing it with one or more new genes Gene subtraction in which genetic engineering techniques are used to inactivate one or more of the existing genes
Who developed Golden rice (oryza sativa) Ingo Potrykus and Peter Beyer to combat vitamin A and iron deficiency as this could accumulate more beta-carotene
What is Golden rice It is a transgenic variety of rice which contains good quantities of Beta carotene beta carotene is a principal source of vitamin A says the grains of the rice or yellow in colour due to beta carotene, the rice is commonly called Golden rice
How is Golden rice made Genes for synthesis of Beta carotene are taken from the temperate Garden favourite Daffodil and inserted into the genome of a temperate strain of rice using agrobacterium tumefaciens
Which plant is genetically modified to produce hirudin Gene encoding hirudin was chemically synthesized and introduced into brassica napus using agrobacterium mediated transformation
What is the defence mechanism of bacillus thuringiensis against insect predation Bacillus thuringiensis, during sporulation forms intracellular crystalline bodies that contain an insecticidal protein called the endotoxin
What about the toxic activity of endotoxin The endotoxin that accumulates in the bacterium is an inactive precursor after injection by the insect this protoxin is cleaved by protesters resulting in shorter versions of the protein that display the toxic activity
How do endotoxin kill the insects The activated shorter versions of the protein bind to the inside of the insects midgut and damaging the surface epithelium by creating ports that cause swelling and licence so the insect is unable to feed and starved to death
What is the name of toxin produced by bacillus thuringiensis BT toxin it has been cloned in bacteria and been expressed in plants to provide resistance to insects without the need for insecticides in effect created a biopesticide
Examples of biopesticides BT cotton,corn, rice, tomato, potato and soya bean
What is the gene name encoded for BT toxin Cry
Which types of insects are affected by BT toxin Lepidopterans (tobacco budworm, armyworm), coleopterans (beetles) and dipterans (flies and mosquitoes)
What is the most successful strategy for gene subtraction Use of antisense RNA
What is root knot nematode Several nematodes feeds on the roots cells causing roots to grow into large galls or knot damaging the crop and reducing it's yield hence called root knot nematode
Name the nematode which infects the roots of tobacco plants Meloidogyne incognita
What is RNA interference It is a naturally occurring mechanism that leads to the silencing of genes in consequence, the respective protein is no longer synthesized it takes place in all Eukaryotic organisms as a method of cellular defence
Mechanism of RNA interference Silencing of a specific mRNA due to formation of dsRNA molecule formed by binding of complementary RNA molecule to original mRNA thereby preventing translation of the original mRNA
What is the source of complementary RNA It could be from infection by viruses having RNA genomes or mobile genetic elements (transposons) that replicate via an RNA intermediate
Erythropoietin is used in the treatment of Anaemia
Factor VIII is used in the treatment of Haemophilia
Follicle stimulating hormone is used in the treatment of Infertility treatment
Granulocyte Colony stimulating factor is used in the treatment of Cancer
Insulin is used in the treatment of Diabetes
Interferon Alpha is used in the treatment of Leukaemia and other cancers
Interferon Gamma is used in the treatment of Cancer, rheumatoid arthritis
Interleukins is used in the treatment of Cancer, immune disorders
Somatotropin is used in the treatment of Growth disorders
Tissue plasminogen Activator is used in the treatment of Heart attack
What are biopharmaceuticals Biopharmaceuticals are medical drugs produced using biotechnology they include proteins, nucleic acids etc
What is the use of insulin The cells of the islets of langerhans in the pancreas controls the level of glucose in the blood.
Two features that facilitated production of insulin by Recombinant DNA techniques First, insulin is a relatively small protein and second is the fact that it is not modified after translation by the addition of sugar molecules
What is the structure of insulin It comprise of 2 polypeptides, 1 of 21 amino acids (the A chain) and the other of 30 amino acids, (the B chain) that are linked Together by disulphide bonds.
How is human insulin formed genetically By preparing to DNA sequences corresponding to A and B chains of human insulin and introducing them in plasmids pBR322 and then transformed E coli to produce insulin chains and combining them with disulphide bonds.
What is gene therapy This is the name originally given two methods that aim to cure an inherited disease by providing the patient with the correct copy of the defective gene
When was the first clinical gene therapy was done It was done in 1990 to a 4 year old girl with adenosine deaminase (ADA deficiency). This enzyme is crucial for the immune system to function because in its absence lymphocyte proliferation is inhibited.
Which disease is caused by the deletion of gene for adenosine deaminase SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency disorder)
How is Ada deficiency can be treated In some children it can be treated by bone marrow transplantation and in others it can be treated by enzyme replacement therapy but it is not completely curative
How is gene therapy for Ada deficiency is done Lymphocytes from the blood of the patient are grown in a culture outside the body then a functional Ada cdna is introduced into these Lymphocytes which are subsequently returned to the patient
What could be the permanent cure of Ada deficiency If the gene isolated from marrow cells producing Ada is introduced into cells at early embryonic stages it could be a permanent cure
Define diagnosis The act or process of determining the nature and cause of a disease through evaluation of patient history, examination and review of laboratory data
What is pathophysiology It is the study of changes in normal,mechanical, physical and biochemical functions caused by a disease. Presence of a pathogen is normally suspected only when the pathogen has produced a disease symptom
How does PCR helps in diagnosis It helps to detect very low concentration of bacteria or virus at the time when the symptoms of the disease are not visible by amplification of their nucleic acid. it is used to detect HIV and mutation in genes in suspected cancer patients
What is ELISA It stands for enzyme linked immunosorbent assay It is based on the principle of antigen antibody interaction. Infection by pathogen can be detected by the presence of antigens or antibodies synthesized against the pathogen
What is autoradiography It is a method allowing the detection and localisation of radioactive isotope within a biological sample
What is the purpose of autoradiography To demonstrate the distribution of a radiolabeled compound within an organism are a cell or to localise the site of incorporation of this compound into the cells are tissues
Which techniques helps in detecting mutated genes causing disease Some molecular Diagnostic techniques such as RFLP make use of hybridisation probes to detect them
What do you mean by probe A single stranded DNA or RNA tagged with radioactive molecules called probe allowed to hybridize to its complementary DNA in a clone of cells followed by detection causing autoradiography
What are the commonly used marker for autoradiography P^32 Incorporated into the phosphodiester bond in the probe DNA
What are transgenic animals Animals that have had their DNA manipulated to possess and Express and extra Jeene are known as transgenic animals
Which was the first transgenic monkey ANDi was the first genetically modified monkey. The GFP (green fluorescent protein) gene was inserted into the monkey's chromosome.
What was the importance of first transgenic cow The first transgenic cow, Rosie, produced human protein enriched milk it contained the human Alpha lactalbumin and was nutritionally a more balanced product for human babies than natural cow milk
What is bioethics It may be viewed as a set of standards that may be used to regulate our activities in relation to the biological world
What is the role of Indian government in bioethics The Indian government has set up organisation such as genetic engineering approval committee which will make decisions regarding the validity of GM Research and the safety of introducing GM organisms for public services
Created by: sherickp