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USH Topic 11

JAHKMLHS Topic 11 America Comes of Age

TermDefinition
“dollar diplomacy” policy that used America's financial powers rather than military intervention, to extend their influence abroad
“Gentlemen’s Agreement” San Francisco School Board agreed to end its segregation policy and Japan agreed to limit the emigration of its citizens to the United States
”big stick” diplomacy philosophy which depended on a strong military to achieve America’s goals
acknowledge admit something is true
Adamson Act limited railroad employees’ workdays to eight hours
Alfred T. Mahan man asserted that many great nations owed their greatness to powerful navies; therefore, he urged the United States to build a modern fleet
Alice Paul one of the leading figures responsible for the passage of the amendment which removed the sex restriction for voting to the U.S. Constitution and also formed the NWP which became the first group to march with picket signs outside the White House
American Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 among other rights granted full voting rights to Native Americans
Americanization This was an effort by settlement houses and civic groups to push immigrants to replace their food and customs with Protestant practices and values.
annex add an area or region to a country or state; to gain control of land
Anti-Defamation League This organization was established to defend Jews against physical and verbal attacks, false statements and to secure justice and fair treatment to all citizens alike.
Antiquities Act of 1906 authorized the President to protect landmarks of historic or scientific interest
assess impose a fine, tax, or special payment on a person or property
assimilate cause a person or a group to become part of a new group or country
bayonet constitution plan of government which in 1887 members of the Hawaiian League presented King Kalakaua and which he signed under the threat of the use of force
Booker T. Washington This man’s “Atlanta Compromise” promised that if southern state governments would fund mechanical, technical, and agricultural for blacks, they would be content to remain in their place.
Boxer Rebellion Chinese nationalists of the Righteous and Harmonious Society massacred numerous Western missionaries and Chinese converts and laid siege to the foreign community in Peking
calamity event that creates great harm and suffering
Carrie Chapman Catt studied law and worked as one of the first female school superintendents
chauvinism prejudiced belief in the superiority of one’s own kind which produces persons who are intolerant of any opinions differing from their own and who are extreme bellicose nationalists
Clayton Antitrust Act prohibited companies from buying the stock of competing companies in order to form a monopoly
colonialism policy or practice by which strong nations acquire full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically
David G. Phillips This writer penned a series of articles that charged that 75 of 90 Senators were agents of the trusts and railroads.
de Lóme letter document stolen from the Spanish ambassador to Washington described McKinley as “weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd.”
devised invented or planned, came up with an idea
direct primary This is an election in which citizens themselves vote to select nominees for upcoming elections.
disenfranchise prevent a person or a group of people from voting or from other legal rights or privileges
dominate have a commanding place or position
dynamic energetic; relating to change or productive activity
Eighteenth Amendment manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited
Elkins Act act prohibited railroads from accepting rebates
Emiliano Zapata led an army of Native American peasants during the revolution because he wanted land to be returned to the native peoples
Emilio Aguinaldo leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain
extractive economies uses of colonies for the source of raw materials which are removed and shipped to the home country
Federal Reserve Act created a central fund from which banks could borrow to prevent collapse during a financial crisis
Federal Trade Commission organization enforced anti-trust laws and got tough on companies that used deceptive or fraudulent advertising
Florence Kelley helped persuade Illinois to prohibit child labor and to limit the number of hours women were forced to work and also helped form the Women’s Trade Union League (WTUL)
fluctuate shift back and forth or change amounts frequently
Foraker Act statute established that the United States would appoint Puerto Rico’s governor and the upper house of its legislature. Puerto Rican voters would elect the lower house
Foraker Act established civil government in Puerto Rico: the President would appoint a governor and part of the legislature and the Puerto Ricans could fill the rest of the legislature in a general election
Frances Willard recognized, developed, and implemented the use of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) as a political organizing force
Francisco “Pancho” Villa led the first armed invasion of the continental U. S. since the war of 1812 when he invaded and burned Columbus, New Mexico
Frank Norris This writer showed how railroads and corrupt politicians controlled California wheat ranches
Frederic Remington correspondent was sent to Cuba to cover the Spanish holding Cuban prisoners in “death camps” and to draw pictures of Spanish atrocities
Frederick Jackson Turner proposed the “safety valve” theory for the West; however, he stated that the frontier had been closed by gradual settlement
George Dewey man who led the naval action during Spanish-American War at Manila, Philippine Islands, 1 May 1898 and destroyed the Spanish Fleet and installations in the Manila Harbor without loss of men to the US Fleet
George W. Goethals called the “Genius of the Panama Canal” who finished coordinating the construction of the Panama Canal after John F. Stevens resigned
Gifford Pinchot Roosevelt’s chief forester
Great White Fleet armada of 16 battleships which Theodore Roosevelt sent on a “good will cruise” around the world
Grover Cleveland condemned American complicity in the overthrow of the rightful ruler of Hawaii and withdrew from the Senate consideration the treaty for annexation
guerilla warfare type of combat that is fought by a civilian population or other people who are not part of a typical military unit
Hepburn Act strengthened the 1887 Interstate Commerce Act
How the Other Half Lives This book depicted the horrendous living conditions in the New York slums.
Ida B. Wells African American teacher helped form the NACW to help families strive for success and to assist those who were less fortunate
Ida Tarbell This writer described the illegal means used by John D. Rockefeller to monopolize the early oil industry.
imperialism practice by a stronger nation to attempt to create an empire by dominating weaker nations economically, politically, culturally, and/or militarily
indemnity payment made because of damage, loss, or injury
initiative This allows voters to put a proposed law on the ballot for public approval.
insurrection violent uprising against an authority or government
intellectual guided by thought; possessing great power of thought and reason
intensify become stronger or more extreme
Jacob Riis This man was a photojournalist who exposed the dirt, disease, vice, and misery of the rat-infested New York slums.
Jane Addams This person was important in establishing the Settlement House movement in Chicago—Hull House.
jingoism extreme belief that one’s own country is always best, often shown in enthusiastic support for a war against another country
John Hay American secretary of state who attempted to preserve Chinese independence and protect American interests in China
John J. Pershing spent 11 months chasing Pancho Villa, pioneering the use of trucks and aircraft in military expeditions
John Muir naturalist believed that the entire wilderness should be preserved in its natural state
John Spargo This writer exposed the abuses of child labor.
José Martí man who dedicated himself exclusively to planning and organizing what became Cuba's third war of independence and who died in battle shortly after the war began. He is known in Cuba as “the father of the Cuban Revolution.”
Joseph Pulitzer publisher was haunted for the rest of his life by the conscious disregard for the facts in his paper the World in the times leading up to the Spanish American War
Lincoln Steffens This writer detailed the corrupt alliance between Big Business and municipal government.
Ludlow Massacre Colorado National Guard opened fire on striking coal miners’ tent city and set fire to the tents killing about 26 men, women, and children
Margaret Sanger opened the country’s first birth-control clinic because she believed that family life and women’s health would improve if mothers had fewer children
Matthew Perry sailed a fleet of warships into present-day Tokyo Bay, Japan and negotiated a treaty that opened Japan to trade with America
Meat Inspection Act brought reforms to the processing of cattle, sheep, horses, swine and goats destined for human consumption
moral diplomacy” way of dealing with the nations of the world that condemned imperialism and endorsed democracy and peace.
muckrakers This was the name given to the group of people whose goal was to cleanse capitalism, not to overthrow the system.
mutualists These were groups that were organized to assist Mexican Americans. The made loans and provided legal assistance. They also had insurance programs to help members if they were too sick to work.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) This group aimed to help African Americans be “physically free from peonage, mentally free from ignorance, politically free from disfranchisement, and socially free from insult.”
National Reclamation Act federal government would create irrigation projects to make dry lands productive
nationalism deep love for one's country which includes the belief that one's nation is better off as an autonomous state and a willingness to go to extreme measures to achieve autonomous self-rule
NAWSA (National American Woman Suffrage Association) called for women’s suffrage on two fronts—some women lobbied Congress for a constitutional amendment and other women used the new referendum process to try to pass state suffrage laws
NCL (National Consumers League) founded to try to protect women from unfair prices of goods needed to run their homes and today promotes better working conditions for migrant farmworker families and teen workers
New Freedom name given to Wilson’s platform calling for tariff reduction, banking reform, and stronger anti-trust legislation
New Nationalism program proposed by Theodore Roosevelt to restore the government’s trust-busting power
Niagara Movement This group condemned the willingness to compromise African Americans’ basic rights as well as the notion of teaching only trade skills. Blacks should be taught history, literature, and philosophy so that they could think for themselves.
Nineteenth Amendment stated that the right to vote “shall not be denied or abridged on account of sex.”
obsolete no longer in use or practice; out of date
Open Door Policy series of memoranda pledged the imperial powers to respect the territorial integrity of China and to grant equal trading rights in their areas of control
Panama Canal human-made waterway linking the Atlantic to the Pacific
Pelican Island first national wildlife refuge; established March 14, 1903
perceive notice or become aware of something
Platt Amendment attachment to a U.S. Army appropriations bill allowed the United States "the right to intervene for the preservation of Cuban independence, the maintenance of a government adequate for the protection of life, property, and individual liberty..."
Platt Amentment attachment to a U.S. Army appropriations bill allowed the United States "the right to intervene for the preservation of Cuban independence, the maintenance of a government adequate for the protection of life, property, and individual liberty..."
Progressive Party formed during the 1912 run for president when the Republicans wanted to nominate Taft for a second term
Progressivism This is a belief that efficient government can protect public interests and restore order to society; therefore, government needs to be more responsive to people’s needs and more honest.
Pure Food and Drug Act beginning of accurate ingredient labels
Queen Liluokalani strong nationalist, who opposed U. S. control of the Hawaiian Islands and sought to reduce the power of foreign merchants
rational relating to or based on reason; reasonable
recall This enables citizens to remove an elected official from office by calling for a special election.
recruit from a group by persuading people to join
referendum This allows citizens to place a recently passed law on the ballot, allowing voters to approve or reject the measure.
reluctant feeling or showing doubt about something
retaliate strike back as revenge when someone has hurt you
rigor extreme hardship or difficulty
Roosevelt Corollary Presidential order that stated, “When it seemed necessary to protect an American state from European intervention, the United States itself would intervene
Rough Riders cavalry unit that was a mix of troops ranging from Ivy League athletes to glee-club singers to Texas Rangers and Indians
Russo-Japanese War 1904 war over the presence of Russian troops in Manchuria
settlement house This was a community center that provided social services to the urban poor especially to immigrants.
Seventeenth Amendment As of 1913 this allowed for the direct election of U.S. senators by citizens
Sixteenth Amendment income tax
Social Darwinism philosophy that teaches that life consists of competitive struggles in which only the fittest survive
Social Gospel This is a program to attempt to build a better society with churches taking the lead role and preaching about charity and justice, about ending child labor, and about a shorter workweek.
spheres of influence region dominated and controlled by an outside power
squander spend in a foolish or wasteful way
Square Deal Roosevelt’s promise that revealed his belief that the needs of workers, business, and consumers should be balanced
stipulate include specifically in the terms of an agreement
strategy plan or action based on a plan
successor person to thing that succeeds, or follows, another
suffrage right to vote
superiority belief that one is better or stronger than others
Teller Amendment act which prevented the United States from taking possession of Cuba; however, it did not apply to the Philippines
temperance movement effort led by the WCTU to promote the practice of never drinking alcohol
The Bitter Cry of the Children This book opened the eyes of many people to the evils of child labor.
The History of the Standard Oil Company This book details Rockefeller’s ruthless tactics in crushing competition (including the author’s father).
The Jungle This book contained graphic depictions of unsanitary conditions in meat packing plants although it had originally been intended to show the plight of immigrants.
The Octopus This novel was the first of a projected trilogy dealing with the effect of railroads and corrupt politicians on the wheat industry.
The Shame of the Cities This book showed how corrupt politicians won elections by bribing and threatening voters and revealed how political corruption affected all aspects of life in a city.
The Treason of the Senate This book detailed the corruption by big business of the upper house of Congress.
Theodore Roosevelt known for his anti-monopoly and conservation policies; youngest man to assume the presidency
Treaty of Paris concluded the war with Spain -- America got Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines for which the U. S. paid 20 million dollars
Treaty of Portsmouth negotiated peace between Russia and Japan by Theodore Roosevelt for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize
Triangle-Shirtwaist Fire This was the destruction of a factory in New York City in which 146 workers were killed. In the aftermath New York began to pass laws to make the workplace safer and other states followed.
U. S. S. Maine vessel which was sent to Cuba to protect and evacuate Americans if a dangerous flare-up should occur and blew up in Havana harbor on February 15, 1898, with the loss of 260 sailors
Upton Sinclair This writer described the unsanitary conditions in the meat packing industry.
Urban League This organization focused on the poorer African Americans by helping families buy clothes and book and send children to school.
Valeriano Weyler governor of Cuba who understood the problems in the fighting the insurgents in Cuba and who attempted to use a “Reconcentration Policy” to separate peasants from rebels in Cuba
W. E. B. Du Bois In 1905 this man, together with several others, adopted the resolutions which led to the founding of the Niagara Movement. This man stated "We want full manhood suffrage and we want it now.... We are men! We want to be treated as men. And we shall win."
William Gorgas warned, “If we do not control malaria, our mortality is going to be heavy.” and convinced the chief engineer of the Panama Canal Project that fighting the mosquito was vital
William Howard Taft first civilian governor of the Philippines; 10th chief justice of the United States; 27th president of the United States
William Randolph Hearst publisher of the New York Journal refused to carry news from Spanish sources, declaring only rebel informants could be trusted
William Seward purchased Alaska, which expanded our reach across the Pacific, for $7.2 million
Woodrow Wilson guided the nation through World War I and negotiated the Versailles Treaty; reforms as governor of New Jersey brought him national attention and the Democratic presidential nomination in 1912
yellow press term that became synonymous with the use of melodrama, romance, and hyperbole to sell millions of newspapers
Created by: jim.haferman