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AICP Practice Areas

Functional Areas of Practice

Fiscal Impact Analysis (aka cost-revenue analysis) Used to estimate the costs and revenues of a proposed development on a local government
Fiscal Impact Difference between revenues and expenditures generated by a proposed development
Methods for conducting a fiscal impact analysis Average per capita; adjusted per capita; disaggregated per capita; dynamic
Average per Capita Simplest but least reliable. Divides the total local budget by the population to determine average per-capita.
Adjusted per Capita Subjective. Uses average per capita and adjusts based on expectations about the new development
Disaggregated per Capita Estimates cost and revenue based on major land uses
Dynamic Requires more data and time. Applies statistical analysis. i.e. how much sales tax is generated per capita from a grocery store and apply to new development
Tribal Planning Engages tribal government leads, residents and businesses in preparing plans and administering planning processes in support of the tribe
Platting Subdivision of land (1660)
Subdivision Division of land into two or more parcels, sites or lots for the purpose of transfer of ownership, development or other valuable interest
Plat Map of a tract or parcel
Replat Further subdivision of lots or adding back together
Amendment Plat Corrects errors or adds information to a plat
Vacating Plat Termination of a plat prior to selling any lots
Preliminary Plat Scaled, mechanical drawing wit precise topography and intervals showing all lots, streets, drainage, facilities and dedications
Final Plat Preliminary plot with bearings, monuments, curves, notations, dedications, easements and approvals
Extraterritorial Jurisdiction (ETJ) Area outside the city limits where subdivision regulations apply, as specified under state law.
Performance bonds Agreement between a property owner and the community to ensure the final plat is constructed as approved within a specified time frame.
Dedications Gifts of land for public purposes such as roads, parks and utilities
Impact Fees Charged for off-site infrastructure to provide services such as water or sewer
Subdivision Bonuses Development benefits in exchange for enhancements (i.e. affordable housing, cluster housing, open space preservation)
Zoning Separation of land uses through legislation that controls the use of private property
Euclidean Zoning Most protective restrictions on residential, less on commercial, none on industrial (pyramid) (Euclid, Ohio)
Cumulative Zoning Less protective than Eucildean. Each district allows all uses from the previous zone (i.e. multi-family zone allows single family, commercial allows multi-family, etc)
Modified Cumulative Zoning Greater degree of protection (i.e. residential would not be allowed in industrial)
Two ways in which a Conditional Use Permit can be issued? Run with the land OR run with the ownership
Amortization A definite period of time within which a non conforming use or structure must be brought into compliance
Planned Unit Development An alternative to strict zoning regulations, typicality used for large developments that include a mix of uses. Flexible zoning.
Overlay Zoning A set of additional restrictions placed over the top of existing zoning.
Variance An exception to the zoning regulations due to economic or physical hardship (use variance, area variance)
Big Box Retail Generally over 50,000 square feet in size
Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations The practice of raising farm animals indoors and in high volumes. Protected under the Right-to-Farm Act which limits local government regulation of commercial farms
Floor Area Ratio (FAR) The ratio of a building's total floor area to the size of the parcel upon which it is constructed.
Maximum Parking Standards Addresses over parking and excess impervious site coverage
McMansion Large houses that are mass produced. Often covers the majority of a lot.
Parachute Home House that does not fit within the neighborhood character (i.e. randomly dropped into an area where it is out of character)
Teardown Demolition of a home to construct a larger home on the same lot
Edge City Concentration of business, shopping and entertainment outside an urban area that was previously a suburb or rural area
Characteristics of an Edge City +5 mil SF of office, 20-50k office workers, +600k SF of retail, more jobs than bedrooms, characterized as one place, not a city in the past 30 years
Smart Growth Planning for sustainability
Sustainable Development Balancing human needs with protection of the natural environment ( environmental, social, and economic)
Triple Bottom Line John Elkington. Three bottom lines, corporate profit, people and the planet.
Carrying Capacity The maximum population and employment that can be carried within a particular community (1845, US Sec of State James Buchanan)
Trip Generation The number of trips a site is likely to generate
Origin-Destination Survey Distributing surveys to a sample of motorists within a defined study area. Questions include where they came from (origin) and where they are going (destination). Respondents mail surveys back.
Cross Tabulation Models Used to estimate trip generation. Published rates.
Trip Distribution Examines where people are going. Area divided into traffic zones; information gathered on the number of trips between zones.
Gravity Model A tool to quantify trip generation relationships.
Modal Split How people arrive at their destination and the form of transportation used.
Average Annual Daily Traffic The amount of traffic on a roadway in a 24 hour period averaged over one year
Peak Hour Volume The hourly traffic during the peak period
Seasonal Hour Volume The peak hour volume during different seasons
Design Hour Volume The capacity of the roadway to handle traffic
Traffic Assignment (Trip Assignment) Using network models to predict the distribution of traffic for each roadway by the hour
Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) A measure of vehicular mobility obtained from travel inventories
Highway Capacity Manual Concepts, guidelines and procedures for computing highway capacity and quality of service based on road type (Transportation Research Board)
Federal Aid Highway Act of 1944 Designated 65,000 km national system of interstate highways. No funding provided.
Federal Aid Highway Act of 1952 Authorized $25 million for construction of highways and an addition $175 million two years later (1954)
Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956 Authorized $25 billion in funding
Federal Aid Highway Act of 1962 Federal mandate for urban transportation planning in urbanized areas with a population of 50,000 or more. 3 C's - continuing, comprehensive, cooperative..
Public Roads Administration (PRA) Responsible for implementing the highway system
ISTEA - Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 Provided funding for highways, transit, pedestrian and bicycle facilities. Followed by, ISTEA, TEA-21, TEA3, SAFETEA, Map-21, FAST
MPO - Metropolitan Planning Organziation Responsible for regional transportation planning. Est. 1965
Improvement Program (TIP) Lists all projects for which federal funds are requested as well as regionally significant projects that are not federally funded. Includes all modes of transportation, highways, public transit, bicycle, pedestrian and freight.
Components of a TIP Estimated costs and schedules by project phase (preliminary engineering, final design, ROW acquisition, construction).
Transportation Demand Management Car sharing, flextime, guaranteed ride home, public transit, park-and-ride, HOV lanes, telecommuting, commute trip reduction, transit oriented development
Traffic Calming Improvements that reduce traffic speeds and cut-through traffic to increase street safety, livability and other public purposes
Chicane Staggered curb extensions on alternating sides of the roadway
Choker Curb extension in the middle of a block
Full or Partial Closure Does not allow traffic beyond a certain point
Realigned Intersections Creates a curve at the approach to an intersection causing traffic to slow prior to entering the intersection
Roundabouts Motorists circulate around a center island, used on smaller streets
Speed Humps 3-4 inch tall raised area that reduces traffic speed
Speed Table Larger version of a speed hump, flat top
Traffic Circle Raised landscaped island at an intersection, used on major streets
Complete Street Safe, accessible and convenient that everyone can use regardless of age, ability or mode of transportation
Adequate Public Facilities Ordinance Allows governments to deny or delay new projects if existing services cannot support it
Concurrency The practice of requiring infrastructure be in place and available at a specified level of service before allowing new development
Daylighting The conversion of an enclosed drainage system to a more open and natural system
Blue Infrastructure Water based infrastructure (i.e. bioretention, swales, reservoirs, rain gardens, constructed wetlands, waterways)
Green Infrastructure Emphasizes the importance of the natural environment in providing clean water, shade, improve environmental quality (air, water), reduce heat island effect
Telecommunications Planning Access to telecommunications infrastructure (i.e. broadband)
Hazard Mitigation Any action taken to reduce or eliminate long term risk to people and property from natural hazards.
Adaptation The adjustment of human and natural systems in response to climate change.
Major Disaster Any natural catastrophe or fire, flood or explosion causing damage of sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant major disaster assistance under the Stafford Disaster Relief Act
Emergency The need for Federal assistance to supplement State and local efforts and capabilities to save lives and protect property and public health and safety
Safe Growth Building environments that are safe for current and future generations, protecting buildings and infrastructure
Resilience Ability of a community to return to its original form following a disaster
Substantial Damage The cost to restore is 50% or more of the market value prior to being damaged
Substantial Improvement Any improvement that is 50% or more of the market value before starting the improvements
When was the first Earth Day? April 22, 1970
What is the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California? Created in 1927 to create the Colorado River Aqueduct to run a water pipeline to Los Angeles.
Who is Rachel Carson? Author of Silent Spring, published in 1962, examined the dangers of chemical pesticides on plants, animals and humans
Effluent Standards Restrictions on the discharge of pollutants into the environment
Point Source Pollution Discharge directly from a specific site (i.e. sewage treatment plant, industrial pipe)
Non-point Source Pollution Contaminated runoff from many sources
Potable Water Water that is safe to drink
Aquifer One or more strata of rock or sediment that is saturated and sufficiently permeable to yield economically significant quantities of water to wells or springs
Estuary An area where freshwater meets saltwater
Lagoon A shallow body of water that is located alongside a coast
Marsh A wetland found along rivers, ponds, lakes and coasts, dominated by herbaceous vegetation
Reservoir Pond, lake, tank or basin that can be used for the storage and control of water, natural or man-made
Surface Water Rivers, lakes, oceans, ocean-like water bodies and coastal tidal waters
Swamp A freshwater wetland that has spongy, muddy land and a lot of water
Watershed A region drained by, or contributing water to, a surface water body
Wetlands Swamps, marshes, bogs. Areas inundated or saturated by surface or groundwater sufficient to support vegetation
Renewable Energy Solar, wind, geothermal (heat energy from the earth), hydropower (water)
Fossil Fuels Coal, oil and natural gas
The Clean Water Act (1977) Permit required to discharge pollutants into a body of water - Point Source Discharge Permit
NPDES National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
Clean Air Act (1970) Permit required to discharge pollutants into the air
6 air pollutants Ozone, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, lead
Air Quality Control Regions (AQCR) Created to measure air quality in air sheds (because air cannot be contained in one location)
Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Requires that a project will not increase emissions above a specified increment
Ambient Air Quality Standards Maximum air contaminant concentrations allowed in ambient air
Non-attainment areas Areas that exceed maximum air contaminant concentrations
NEPA (1969) National Environmental Policy Act requires that environmental impacts of a project be considered
EA Environmental Assessment determines whether there is a significant environmental impact
EIS Environmental Impact Statement is required for federal projects affecting the environment
The Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 Prohibited the construction of any bridge, dam, dike or causeway over any navigable waterway without Congressional approval. Also includes wharf's, piers, jetties, excavation/fill of navigable waters.
The Water Pollution Control Act of 1948 Program for reducing/eliminating pollution of interstate waters and tributaries, improving sanitary condition of surface and underground waters (public health perspective)
The Water Quality Act of 1965 Water quality treated as an environmental concern (rather than public health)
The Clean Water Act of 1966 Provided construction grants for wastewater treatment facilities
The Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 Reduce polluted runoff in 29 coastal states
Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 Water pollution authority placed under EPA and changed enforcement from water quality standards to point source pollution discharge
Endangered Species Act of 1973 Protection of plants and animals designated as threatened or endangered
Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act of 1978 (PURPA) Promoted alternative energy sources, energy efficiency and reduced dependence on foreign oil, competition in utility industry
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 Superfund to clean up abandoned hazardous waste sites, major industries must report annually toxic waste releases
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) EPA control over generation, transportation, treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous waste (cradle-to-grave)
Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 EPA responsibility for reporting, record keeping and testing requirements/restrictions relating to chemical substances (exclusions include food, drugs, cosmetics and pesticides)
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Registering and labeling of pesticides, EPA regulated for the protection of human health and the environment
Safe Drinking Water Act Protects the sources of drinking water as well as making sure drinking water is safe
Brownfields (Superfund sites-CERCLA) The expansion, redevelopment or use of "real property" complicated by the presence of hazardous substances
Environmental Justice Addressing the disproportionate adverse environmental and human health impacts of gov't policies, programs, and activities on minority/low-income populations
Conventional sources of engergy Natural gas, coal and oil
Renewable Energy Biomass energy, methane, hydroelectric power, solar energy, wind power
kWh/m2 and Btu/ft2 kilowatt-hours per square meter relating to electricity production and British thermal units per square foot relating to heat production
Passive solar design Siting buildings to maximize light and space heating based on location, maximize direct sunlight, orienting streets and front lot lines along the east-west axis
Multiplier effect Certain types of jobs drive demand for other jobs (interdependence between industry sectors)
Enterprise Zone A geographic area where policies encourage economic growth and development (i.e. tax or infrastructure incentives, reduced regulations)
Context Sensitive Design Roadway standards and development practices that are flexible and sensitive to community values
Form Based Code Focuses on form over use whereas conventional zoning focuses on use over form
Landscape Urbanism Less focus on buildings, more focus on landscape
New Urbanism Promotes compact, walkable neighborhoods, mixed income, well defined edge and center, public green spaces, access to shopping/work/school within 5 min walk or access to transit
Peter Calthorpe Founder of the Congress for New Urbanism
Transect Development on a rural to urban continuum (New Urbanist planning practice)
Tactical Urbanism Low-cost temporary change to demonstrate potential impacts that change can have (i.e temporary bike lane, street furniture)
Transit-oriented development (TOD) Mixed-use development with access to transit (light rail, bus or other type of transit station)
First National Park? Yellowstone, 1872
When was the National Park Service created? August 25, 1916 under Pres. Woodrow Wilson
Organic Act of 1916 Created the National Park Service
John Muir Advocate for the creation of a national park system, brought national attention to sites that eventually became national parks
Theodore Roosevelt Created 5 national parks, 18 national monuments, 15 bird sanctuaries, 4 game refuges, and 100 mil acres of national forests
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Improved national parks during the Depression through the Civilian Conservation Corps, expansion of the park system, addition of civil war battlefields, Lincoln Memorial
Linear park Significantly longer in length than in width
Neighborhood parks Basic recreation, within walking/biking distance of most residents, 5 or fewer acres
Community parks Serve areas 1-5 miles in size, 20-100 acres in size, mix of amenities
Regional parks May be managed by a park district and may serve multiple jurisdictions
Parks "level of service standards" I.e. % of population within 1/2 mile of a neighborhood park or trail, 5 miles of a community park, 25 miles of a regional park
Greenway Scenic trail or route set aside for travel or recreation
Scenic resources Landscape patterns and features, aesthetically pleasing and contribute to distinctness of a community or region
Viewshed Area visible through a line of site from a particular location
Wildlife corridor A linkage between two similar wildlife habitats
Conservation easements Legal agreements between a property owner and land trust that places restrictions on the use of the property to protect natural resources
Transfer of Development Rights Transferring development rights from an area designated for low density development to an area planned for growth
Antiquities Act (1906) Archaeological sites on public lands are public resources to be preserved; President is authorized to protect landmarks, structures and objects of historic significance (national monument designation)
Organics Act (1916) Established the National Park Service
Historic Sites Act (1935) Organized federally owned parks, monuments and historic sites under the National Park Service; preserve for public use historic sites/buildings/objects of national importance
Wilderness Act (1964) Created the National Wilderness Preservation System; 106 million acres of federal public wilderness lands
National Wild and Scenic River Act (1968) Preserves certain rivers that have outstanding natural, cultural and recreational values in a free flowing condition. 12,709 miles, 208 rivers, 40 states and Puerto Rico
Community Gardens Shared open space where individuals can grow fresh fruits and vegetables
Farmers Markets Farm products sold directly by farmers
Community Support Agriculture (CSA) Program that connects farmers to consumers who receive weekly allotments of fresh produce from the farm
Farm to School Program that brings fresh food from farms to school cafeterias
Food Policy Council Advises local and state gov't on food policy
Agricultural Land Trust Type of conservation easement that protects farmland from development
Fresh Food Financing Allocates funds to help grocery stores locate in under-served communities (gap funding)
Health Corner Store Initiatives Provides financial assistance to small corner grocery stores to increase the offering of healthy foods in under-served neighborhoods
Institutional Planning Schools, colleges, military bases, airports, hospitals, jails and religious facilities
Health Impact Assessment Assesses the health consequences of a policy, project or program where health is not the primary objective
Created by: mrwaffle