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# AICP Plan Making

### Plan Making and Implementation

Why do we use survey's? | To obtain citizen input; to collect data on a topic that cannot be observed; to assess attitudes and characteristics of the public. |

What is the difference between a cross-sectional survey and a longitudinal survey? | A cross-sectional survey gathers information at a single point in time. A longitudinal survey collects data over a a period of time. |

What are the different types of surveys? | Written, group-administered, drop-off, oral, phone and on-line. |

Describe the pros and cons of a written survey. | Pros: Can be mailed, printed in a newspaper or administered in a group setting. Broad audience. Low-cost. Cons: Low response rate. Must be able to read and write. |

Describe the pros and cons of a group-administered survey. | Pros: Targets a specific population. High and quick response rates. Cons: Getting the target group together to complete the survey. Requires a small sample size. |

Describe the pros and cons of a drop-off survey. | Pros: Survey is hand delivered. Higher response rates. Cons: Can be expensive/time consuming. Sample is generally smaller. |

Describe the pros and cons of oral and/or phone surveys. | Pros: Useful for yes/no answers. Allows for follow-up questions. Cons: Response rates vary. Expensive. Can be biased. Not conducive for long questions or multiple answers. |

Describe the pros and cons of on-line surveys. | Pros: Inexpensive. Quick responses. Higher response rates. Cons: Excludes those without internet access. |

Population | The total number of an entity. |

Sample | A subset of the population. |

Descriptive Statistics | Describe the characteristics of a population. |

Inferential Statistics | Characteristics of a population based on observations from a sample. |

Central Tendency | Mean, Median and Mode |

Mean | The average. |

Median | The middle number of a ranked distribution. [For an even number data set, average the middle two numbers to obtain the median.] |

Mode | The most frequent number. [There can be more than one.] |

Nominal Data | I.e. race, SSN, sex. Mode is the only measure. |

Ordinal Data | I.e. educational attainment, test grade. Mode and median are the only measures. |

Interval Data | Ordered relationship with magnitude. Mean is best measure. Median can be use where data is skewed. |

Ratio Data | Ordered relationship, equal intervals. I.e. distance. Any form of central tendency (mean, median or mode) can be used. |

What are the 4 types of variables? | Qualitative (nominal or ordinal), quantitative (interval or ratio), continuous (infinite number of values) and dichotomous (only two values) |

What are the 2 types of hypotheses? | Null (no differences) and Alternate (proposes the relationship) |

What is a normal distribution? | Data that is symmetrical around the mean (average). Bell curve. |

What are outliers? | Data that has a few high or low numbers that can skew the data to the right or to the left. |

What are the 6 different Measures of Dispersion? | Range, variance, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, standard error and confidence interval. |

Measure of Dispersion: Range | Simplest measure of dispersion. Difference between the highest and lowest scores. |

Measure of Dispersion: Variance | Descriptor of probability distribution, how far the numbers lie from the mean. [Average squared difference of scores from the mean.] |

Measure of Dispersion: Standard Deviation | Square root of the Variance. |

Measure of Dispersion: Coefficient of Variation | Measures the relative dispersion from the mean (average). Standard Deviation divided by the mean. |

Measure of Dispersion: Standard Error | Standard Deviation of a sampling distribution. The larger the sample the smaller the error. |

Measure of Dispersion: Confidence Interval | An estimated range of values likely to include an unknown population parameter. I.e. political polls. +/- 3% |

Statistical Tests: Chi Square | The difference between two frequency distributions. Probability distributions in inferential statistics. An observed distribution and a theoretical one. |

Statistical Tests: Z-score | A measure of distance from the mean in standard deviation units. Determines probability of an outcome. |

Statistical Tests: T-test | Compares the means of two groups to determine if differences occurred by chance. Need to know for each group: 1) number of subjects, 2) difference between the means, and 3) standard deviation. |

Statistical Tests: ANOVA | ANalysis Of VAriance; relationship between two variables - nominal and interval. |

Statistical Tests: Correlation & Correlation Coefficient | Tests the STRENGTH of the relationship between variables. |

Statistical Tests: Regression | Tests the EFFECT of independent variables on a dependent variable. Explores the relationship between variables. I.e. number of hours studying, exam score. |

Statistical Tests: Sampling and Non-Sampling Errors | When the sample is not representative of the whole population. A non-sampling error cannot be explained (i.e. respondents misunderstood a question, misreported an answer, or failed to answer.) |

What are the 4 major population estimate and projection methods? | Linear, Symptomatic, Step Down Ratio and Cohort Survival |

Linear Method | Rate of growth or decline over a period of time to estimate current or future population. |

Exponential and Modified Exponential Methods and the Gompertz Projection | Same as linear method except that a modified exponential projections assumes there is a cap to the change. Gompertz accounts for a slower growth that speeds up over time. |

Symptomatic Method | Uses available data to estimate current population. I.e. using average household size and applying it to the number of building permits issued for new single family homes. |

Step Down Ratio Method | Uses the ratio of a population in a city and a county at a given point of time to project current or future population. I.e. city is 10% of county population. |

Distributed Housing Unit Method | Uses Census data for number of housing units and multiply by occupancy rate and persons per household. Less reliable for rapidly changing communities. |

Cohort Survival Method | Uses natural increases and net migration to calculate future population. Most accurate projection. Requires large amount of data. |

What are the 3 major economic analysis methods? | Economic base, shift-share and input-output. |

Economic Base Analysis | Basic and non-basic economic activities; export activities vs locally oriented activities. |

Location Quotient | Ratio of an industry's share of local employment divided by its share of the nation. Less than 1 is an import economy; more than 1 is an export economy. |

Shift-Share Analysis | Analyzing a local economy in comparison with a larger economy. Includes differential shift, proportional shift and economic growth. Uses employment information by sector for two points in time. |

Input-Output Analysis | Links suppliers and purchasers to determine economic output. Requires a large quantity of data and is costly. |

What does NAICS stand for? | North American Industry Classification System |

Who developed the NAICS? | Office of Management and Budget |

How does the US Census define an "urbanized area"? | Urban nucleus of 50,000 or more people. In 2000, 68% of Americans lived in an urbanized area. |

How does the US Census define an "urban cluster"? | Populations of 2,500-50,000 with a density of 1,000 persons per square mile. In 2000, 11% of Americans lived in urban clusters. |

How does the US Census define a "metropolitan statistical area"? | A population of at least 100,000 with one city or urbanized area with at least 50,000 people. |

How does the US Census define a "micropolitan statistical area"? | A population of 10,000 to 50,000 with a central county. |

How does the US Census define a "census designated place"? | An unincorporated area that is the equivalent of an incorporated place for data purposes. |

How does the US Census define a "consolidated MSA"? | The combination of multiple metropolitan statistical area's. I.e. Dallas-Forth Worth. |

What is a "core based statistical area"? | An area with at least 10,000 people that when combined with adjacent communities is socially and economically integrated. |

What is a "megalopolis"? | A book published by Jean Gottman in 1961. Defined a 300 mile long urban area between Boston and D.C. Now includes urban areas of more than 10 million people. |

How does the US Census define a "census tract"? | An area with a population of 2,000 to 8,000. |

How does the US Census define a "census block"? | The smallest level at which data is collected. Typically 400 housing units per block. |

How does the US Census define a "census block group"? | A group of census blocks. |

What is a Minor Civil Division? | A unit only used in 29 states typically corresponding to a municipality. |

What is a Census County Division? | A unit units in the remaining 21 states that do not have minor civil divisions. |

What is a Tribal Designated Statistical Area? | A unit drawn by tribes that do not have a recognized land area. |

American Community Survey Data | Public Use Microdata Sample and PUblic Use Microdata Areas |

What was the national population in 2010? | 308 million |

What are the 3 fastest growing states? | Nevada, Arizona and Utah |

Which state lost population between 2000 and 2010? | Michigan |

What is the national average household size? | 2.59, down from 3.1 in 1970 |

What is the national median age? | 37.2, this figure is up from prior Census' |

What replaced the long form in the decennial Census? | American Community Survey (ACS) |

When did the ACS begin? | 2005 |

What percentage of the population is surveyed? | 2.5% (1 in 40 addresses or 3 million households) |

What is, Title 13 of the US Code? | Protects the confidentiality of respondents to the Census and ACS. Information is released after 72 years. |

What is GIS? | Geographic Information Systems is the field of computerized mapping. |

What is spatial data? | Themes, layers or coverages within GIS. |

What are attributes? | The information about an object or feature. Typically stored in a database or spreadsheet. [Ian McHarg] |

What is a topographic map? | A two-dimensional representation of the 3-dimensional surface of the earth. |

What is GPS? | Global Positioning Systems. Improved the spatial accuracy. |

What is TIGER? | Topographically Integrated Geographical Encoding and Referencing map used by the Census. |

What is a design charrette? | An intensive collaborative effort that brings together citizens, stakeholders and staff to develop a detailed design plan for a specific area. An effective technique for developing consensus. Small group format with a facilitator (i.e. AIA chapter). |

What is the delphi method? | Public participation for consensus building. Panel of selected, informed citizens and stakeholders. |

What is the nominal group technique? | Problem identification, solution generation and decision making. Decision by vote. |

What is facilitation? | Working together to solve complex problems using a person who does not have a direct stake in the outcome. |

What is mediation? | Discussion to reach agreement that includes measurable, achievable and realistic solutions. Dispute-resolution. |

What is a public hearing? | Meeting before a decision making body that allows for citizen input. Typically mandated by law. Ineffective at building public participation and consensus. |

What is a visual preference survey? | Evaluation of physical images of the natural and built environment by citizens to obtain feedback on what they see as appropriate for their community. |

What is visioning? | Engaging the community to develop a concept for the future (i.e. 20-30 year plan). An early step in comprehensive planning. |

What are the 3 basic types of map projection? | Conic, cylindrical and planar |

What are contour lines? | Lines of equal elevation. |

What is a contour interval? | The distance between contour lines. The closer together the lines the steeper the terrain. |

How is slope calculated? | Change in elevation (rise) divided by the horizontal distance (run). Multiply by 100 to obtain percent slope. |

How many feet in a mile? | 5,280 feet in a mile |

What is floor area ratio? | The ratio of gross floor area of a building to the site area. |

What is NEPA? | National Environmental Policy Act (1969) |

What is an EA? | Environmental Assessment. Determines whether there is a significant environmental impact. |

What is an EIS? | Environmental Impact Statement. Prepared for Federal actions significantly affecting the environment. |

What is a scoping meeting? | Engages the proponents of a proposal and the public to identify significant issues and possible alternatives. |

What are the 4 sections of an EIS? | Introduction, project description, range of alternatives, analysis of environmental impacts |

What is cost-benefit analysis? | Estimates the total monetary value of the benefits and costs of a project to determine whether it should be undertaken. |

Who is Jules Dupuit? | The originator of the cost-benefit analysis. 1848. |

What is the Federal Navigation Act of 1936? | Required the US Army Corps of Engineers to undertake waterway system projects when the benefits exceeded the costs of the project. |

What is one of the biggest challenges of a cost-benefit analysis? | Calculating the monetary value of social and environmental benefits. |

What is cost-effectiveness analysis? | A method of selecting among competing projects when resources are limited. |

What is net present value? | The net monetary value of a project. |

How is net present value calculated? | Years of the project's life span, quantified monetary benefits, monetary costs, interest rate. |

What is the goals achievement matrix? | A project evaluation tool that includes competing projects in rows and evaluation criteria in columns. |

What is a Gantt Chart? | Developed in 1917 by Charles Gantt, provides a sequence of tasks for project completion. Horizontal bar chart. |

What is linear programming? | Project management tool to develop a optimum design solution. |

What is PERT? | Program Evaluation and Review Technique. Graphically illustrates the interrelationship of project tasks. Precise time estimates are not known. |

What is the critical path method? | Tool to analyze a project. The amount of time to complete each task is known and must be completed before the next task. The longest path is the critical path. |

What are the 4 types of budgeting methods? | Line-item budgeting; planning, programming and budgeting systems; zero-base budgeting; performance-based budget |

What are the pros and cons of line-item budgeting? | Pros: does not require evaluation of existing services, easy to prepare and justify, easy to understand. Cons: lack of flexibility, short term focus, not linked to strategic, comprehensive or capital improvement plans. |

What are the pros and cons of planning, programming and budgeting systems? | Pros: Linked to programs, evaluates efforts and accomplishments. Cons: time consuming, requires measurable goals and objectives. Limited success. |

What are the pros and cons of zero-base budgeting? | Pros: consider every aspect of operations, why it does what it does. Cons: very time consuming. Limited success. |

What are the pros and cons of a performance based budget? | Pros: links funding to performance measures. Cons: time consuming. |

What are some common financing options? | Pay as you go, reserve funds, general obligation bonds, revenue bonds |

What is tax increment financing? | A tax revenue increase used for capital improvements in a designated area. |

What are the 3 types of taxes? | Progressive, proportional and regressive |

What are progressive taxes? | Tax rate increases as income rises |

What are proportional taxes? | Tax rate is the same regardless of income |

What are regressive taxes? | Tax rate decreases as income rises |

FAR and Building Height | FAR x acres = number of stories (i.e. FAR of 6 x 2.5 acres = 15 stories) |

Transect Studies | A type of Form Based Zoning (i.e SmartCode) |