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the first nation to explore Portugal
second nation to explore Spain
Europeans outside of Italy knew that trade would be more profitable if they gained direct water access to Asia
country that does not explore Italy
What are the three motives for exploration? God, glory, gold
The Portuguese attempted to find a direct water route to Asia by going around Africa
the Portuguese colonized what country under Pedro Cabral? Brazil
Why did it make sense that the Portuguese found this region? Brazilians speak Portuguese
Columbus belief? sail directly west would eventually lead him to a direct water route to Asia
Two mistakes Columbus made? 1) he underestimated the circumference of the Earth 2) he did not know that a continent lay in his path
Who sponsored Columbus although he was Italian? Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain
Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain hoped to gain wealth and political prestige which led to Spanish Inquisition; expel Muslims and Jews
patron for navigation; dies halfway through Africa Prince Henry
reaches the Southern tip of Africa; names the Cape of Storms Bartholomeu Dias
went all the way around Africa to India Vasco da Gama
Spanish tried to lay claims to the land of the new world by asking Pope Alexander VI to support, and drafted an agreement Treaty of Tordesillas
led the first voyage to circumnavigate the world, and passed the Americas by going around South America Ferdinand Magellan
underestimated the size of Pacific Ocean, Magellan's voyage reached the Phillippines
why did they name it the Philippines? they named it after the Spanish King Phillip
Magellan died there but, 1 ship and 18 men became the first to sail around the globe
Which countries set up colonies in the New World? England, France, Netherlands
conquistador who conquered the Aztecs Heman Cortes
3 reasons the Europeans were so successful in conquering native lands 1. Superior military technology 2. Division among the natives 3. Disease
defined as the right of settlers in the new world to use the natives as laborers encomiedna
natives who labored for Spanish worked on plantations raising sugar cane or gold and silver
natives who labored for the Portuguese worked on dealt w/ heavy jungle growth, made farming and mining
natives were killed if they refused to work or submit to will of Europeans such as Catholocism
workers in debt bondage peons
priest who opposed encomiedna and the poor treatment of the natives Bartolome de las Casas
Bartolome suggestion? He decides to bring over Africans to help around since they live in similar climate,, later becomes slave trade
officials chosen by the King of Spain to rule over large areas of the colonies in the king's name viceroys
the pyramid of colonial society peninsularas: came to America from Europe Creoles: Pure European descent born in America mesitoes: mix born native and eurpeans multatoes: half african half european Native: African:slaves
defined as the global transfer of plants animals and diseas etc., betwn the old and new worlds mostly to the benefit of Europeans Colombian Exchange
items that came from the old world to the new people, cattle, horses
items that came from the new world to old? products/crops, potatoes, beans, corns, tobacco, tomatoes
the exchange lead to increased diets BETTER NUTRITION!!!!
new economic system: economic theory - nation's strength based on wealth - favorable balance of trade (encourages colonization) - colonization + natural resources + market mercantillism
European competition for wealth, more colonies, stronger militaries Capitalism
5 impacts of exploration 1. Colombian exchange 2. New economic systems 3. Destruction of Native Culture 4. African Slave Trade 5. Creation of New Culture in New Americas - European and African culture blended
three-legged network that exchanged goods from Europe to Africas and Americas Triangular trade
spread of African culture throughout the world but the weakening of that culture in that place Diaspora
the passage the slaves journeyed on; 5 to 12 week journey across the Atlantic Ocean, transition of slaves to America middle passage
What is Japan's first trade interaction with Europe? The Portuguese brings guns.
Why does the Tokugawa Shogunate change their stance on trade with Europe? The Portuguese want to bring in their Catholicism which goes against the government. They shut off trade with Europeans for 20 years.
The Ming Dynasty rose up after the overthrow of Mongol Kublai Khan Yuan
What did they revive? traditional Chinese values; Confucianism civil service exams
What did the Ming do? - strengthening the office of the emperor - they moved the capital to Beijing - built Great Wall of China
"Ming" means brilliant
the imperial city was surrounded by high walls and a moat, only people allowed to enter were the Royal family and his entourage
color of the emperor yellow
2 exceptions to the yellow tiles of roofs 1. library had black thought to be associated w/ water > fire prevention 2. the Crown Prince have green was associated w/ wood therefore growth
The other form of fire prevention placed tubs of water around buildings
the entire city was built of wood
The Ming Dynasty sponsored sea voyages of Zheng He
sailed all over the Indian Ocean but in 1435, the Ming destroyed the fleet and returned to Isolationism Zheng He
What ways did the Ming restrict trade with the Europeans? a. refused to accept goods except w/Canton b. accepted only gold and silver from Europeans
During the Qing Dynasty, China was ruled by? Manchu People from the North
What did the Manchu force men to do? to wear their hair in the Manchu style, shaved their heads and braided back for their hair
What was so bad about the Manchu hairstyle? it went against Confucianism bc it required them to cut their hair
What was the purpose of the order to this style? to erase Han Chinese pride and culture, and achieve psychological enslavement
Most of Qing Dynasty, China stays the most advanced civilization in the world and is able to control trade w/ Europe
In the middle of Qing rule, China is? weakened and are not able to keep up w/ European advances in technology and education
result of Spanish exploration created a strong, wealthy overseas empire in New World based on colonization and the exploitation of Natives
result of Portuguese Exploration 1. fought Arab Muslims and took control over spice trade for awhile 2. created a small trading empire in the east but was limited 3. colonized Brazil
magnetic compass and astrolabe brought to Europe from Muslims
more accurate maps detailing the shape of coastlines and the distance btwn ports portolan maps
Defeated Mongol invasions with the help of kamikaze storms and kept Japan free of Mongol rule Kamakura Shogunate
Weak shogun because of strong daimyos First introduction of European goods – guns! – from Portuguese traders Ashikaga Shogunate
Strong shoguns brought peace, prosperity and unity to Japan The peace hurt the samurai Social structure of feudalism became even more rigid Tokugawa Shogunate
Established by a peasant Zhu Yuanzhang Ming Dynasty
moved the capital to what is today Bejing Ming Dynasty
Revived traditional Chinese values such as Confucianism and civil service exams Ming Dynsaty
Strengthened the office of emperor Ming Dynasty
Built many of the portions of the Great Wall seen today Ming Dynasty
Controlled trade with Europeans by refusing to officially trade with them except in the port of Canton Accepted only gold and silver from the Europeans Restriction of foreign trade
Ming lost the mandate in 1644
capitalism Joint-stock company “Putting out” system
joint ownership over a business joint-stock company
Created by: fikott1
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