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test review

1. What flag did the defenders (Texans) fly in the Alamo during the siege? An altered Mexican looking flag with 1824 in the middle instead of the eagle.
2. When was the Siege of the Alamo? Feb. 23 – early morning March 6, 1836 (1836 was a leap year)
3. What was Sam Houston’s position in the ad interim government? Commander of the provisional or ad interim army
What is a tactical retreat and who used it? Why and was he successful? Organized pullback of troops to gain an advantage; Sam Houston; gather all troops together and organize strategies; yes, won Battle of San Jacinto
4. On April 21, 1836, the Texans made a surprise attack on the Mexicans at San Jacinto. Who was the commander of the volunteers? Why do we celebrate April 21st as “San Jacinto Day?” Sam Houston was the commander of the volunteers and Santa Anna was the leader of the Mexican soldiers. On April 21, 1836, Santa Anna was defeated and independence was ultimately gained from Mexico
5. Why did Sam Houston have an advantage using the geographic features on the plains of San Jacinto? Mexican army was not familiar with the area including locations of different bodies of water and the marshland. Most Mexican soldiers could not swim and Santa Anna had lost a portion of one leg in a previous battle
6. Where was the Convention of 1836 held? Washington-on-the-Brazos
7. When did the Convention of 1836 begin and end (month, day, year)? March 1st through March 17, 1836
8. The primary writer of the Texas Declaration of Independence was a lawyer from Tennessee, who was he? George Childress
9. What made the Alamo hard for the Texans to defend? Originally a mission with a plaza in the center; wide open spaces and a wall that was incomplete and damaged
10. What famous Texas document was written on March 2, 1836? What did the delegates base this document on? Declaration of Independence and this was based on the United States Declaration of Independence.
11. Who famously wrote, “Victory or Death!” in a letter written during the siege of the Alamo? What does this imply? William Barrett Travis requesting reinforcements because he was not going to surrender to the Mexican army
12. Why was Stephen F. Austin arrested in Mexico in 1834 (clue: separate for Coahuila)? SFA had documents from Convention of 1833 -this suggested Tejas be separate state from Coahuila. He was waiting for Pres Santa Anna, wrote to people in Tejas - it fell into hands of the government. SFA charged with treason and spent over a year in jail
13. Where were Fannin and most of his 300 Texans volunteers massacred on the orders of Santa Anna? In a field just outside of La Bahia in the city of Goliad.
14. Who was known as the “Father of Texas” born in 1793 and settled a colony for his father? Stephen F. Austin – he brought the first Anglo settlers into area of Texas
15. How did the Texas colonists feel about the Mexican Constitution of 1824? Why? Colonists liked the Mexican Constitution because it was similar to the U.S. Constitution, however the Mexican Constitution did not give freedom of religion, speech, press or representation in court and citizens were guilty until proven innocent
16. Why did Stephen F. Austin go to Mexico City in 1821? Moses Austin got permission from Spanish govt to settle colonists; died before anyone settled. SFA going to then settle colonists but Spanish govt lost power and new Mex govt in control. SFA asked permission to take over father’s contract from Mex govt.
17. What did Mier y Teran’s report say about the Anglo population north of the Rio Grande? What did this report cause to be written? Anglo population outnumbered the Native Mex population and there was American influence north of Rio Grande. If there was a revolt by the Anglos, Mexico would probably lose the area. This information caused for the Decree of April 6, 1830 to be written
18. What was the original purpose for the Anglos to colonize north of the Rio Grande The Mexican government wanted the Anglos to be a buffer between the aggressive Native Americans, mostly Apache and Comanche, and the native Mexican citizens.
19. Why did Anglo settlers want to come to Mexico from the United States? In what part of Tejas did the most Anglo settlers live? Cheap land that could be purchased on credit and most settled in southeast Texas. There was an economic depression in the United States after the War of 1812.
20. Give 4 cultural differences between the American Anglos and the Native Mexicans when the Anglos settled in Tejas (Texas). A. No freedom of religion B. Guilty until proven innocent C. No freedom of press, speech, assembly, petition/protest D. No representation or voice in the government/laws
21. Moses Austin then Stephen F. Austin had to consider water sources, flat land and fertile soil when considering an area for colonization. What area of Texas was chosen for most of the empresario land grants? Most Anglo settlers first settled east of the Guadalupe River to the Trinity River/Galveston Bay and near the coast.
22. What kept the Native Mexican citizens from wanting to colonize Texas north of the Rio Grande? Aggressive Native Americans – mostly the Apaches and Comanches. This is why Spain then Mexico agreed to have the Anglo settlers north of the Rio Grande.
23. Give 3 ways early Native Americans had adapted or blended their culture with the Spanish/Mexican then American (Anglo) culture. A. Religion and customs B. Agriculture - “American triad” or “three sisters” – corn, beans and squash were all planted in the same mound and taught this to the settlers. C. Use of natural resources and climate to have shelter, clothing and tools.
24. What was the National religion of Spain and then Mexico during early colonization? Roman Catholic Church
25. In the Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819, the Sabine River was established as the border between Spain and the United States. Also, Spain gave the colony of Florida to the United States, what did the United States surrender in return? All claims to Texas
26. What led to the reduction of empresario contracts after 1829? Why? Decree of April 6, 1830
27. Give five changes settlers were affected by with the decree of 1830. A. No more empresario contracts B. No more U. S. immigration C. Increased import taxes on goods from United States D. More Mexican soldiers in E Texas E. Free land and $$ to Europeans and Native Mexican citizens willing to move north of Rio Grande
decree of 1830 The settlers did not like this decree (law) because they thought it broke the Constitution of 1824 and this law led to the Texas Revolution.
What is known as the “bloodiest battle” on Texas soil in the fight for Mexican independence from Spain? Battle of Medina - This battle was between the Republican Army of the North (filibusters) vs. Spanish Army. Santa Anna was a young soldier in the Spanish army during this battle. It was the first time he saw the tactic of “no prisoners, no mercy”.
28. Purpose of a Spanish mission A. God – convert Native Americans to Roman Catholic Church B. Glory – control the land and its people to be powerful C. Gold – still looking the cities of gold Most important – keep France out of Texas!
29. Most famous mission – San Antonio de Valero – “The Alamo”
30. Give 3 examples of Spanish influence in Texas today? A. City/river names B. Religion and language C. Architecture and design of some cities
31. What river did the filibusters, including the Gutierrez-Magee Expedition cross to get into Texas from the Neutral Ground in the early 1800s? Sabine River
Culture customs, ideals, beliefs of a people
League (as in distance) measures 3 miles
Square league sitio of land 4,428 acres
San Antonio de Bexar built in 18th century as presidio with Villa San Fernando de Bexar nearby. The presidio and villa were est because of San Antonio de Valero and 4 other Spanish missions. Area became largest Spanish settlement N of Rio Grande and is now San Antonio.
Fray Massanet went to east Texas with Alonzo de Leon in 1690 to establish mission San Francisco de los Tejas and had many problems with the Hassinai (part of the Caddos); buried bells then mission burned
Nomadic move from place to place
Settled stay in one place
32. Three tribes that belong to the Southeastern Culture A. Caddo B. Wichita C. Atakapa or Atakapan
33. Southeastern Culture’s roaming area was : NE Texas along Red R., Piney Woods along Louisiana and Sabine R. to Galveston Bay
34. Two tribes that belong to the Western Gulf Culture A. Karankawa B. Coahuiltecan
35. Western Gulf Culture’s roaming area was along the Gulf Coast from Galveston to Corpus Christi
36. Four tribes that belong to the Plains Culture A. Apache B. Comanche C. Kiowa D. Tonkawa
37. Plains Culture’s roaming area was Panhandle of Texas to central Texas near Austin
38. Two tribes that belong to the Puebloan Culture and had shelter of adobe A. Concho/Tigua B. Jumano
39. Puebloan Culture’s roaming area was West Texas near Rio Grande
40. Which three tribes used tipis for shelter, had the use of the horse beginning in the early 1600’s and depended on the buffalo because was too dry to grow vegetables: A. Apache B. Comanche C. Kiowa
41. Which tribe was the most civilized; had the best diet of fish and vegetables; good tradesmen and used the term “Tay-sas” meaning “friends”? Caddo
Name the Explorer- 42. Ship wrecked on Galveston Island; held captive for 7yrs by Karankawa/Atakapan; had to walk everywhere; wrote a book about land and animals in Texas especially the large herds of buffalo – Cabeza de Vaca
Ne the Explorer- 43. First to map the coastline of Texas and planted the Spanish flag to claim the area of “New Spain” - Pineda
Agriculture farming; preparing soil for crops. Cotton, corn and rice are examples of crops grown in SE Texas on the plains near the Gulf Coast.
Climate average weather of a place over last 20-30 years
Prairie grassland
Savanna – grassland with scattered trees
Region an area with places that share the same characteristics
44. List four natural regions of Texas: A. Coastal Plains B. North Central Plains C. Great Plains D. Mountains and Basins
Which natural region has: 45. most land, most major cities with abundant water(rivers); warm summers and is densely populated Coastal Plains
Which natural region has: 46. arid(driest) climate with sparse vegetation Mountains and Basins
Which natural region has: 47. least amount of people or major cities, many mountains and high elevations – Mountains and Basins
48. Palo Duro Canyon which has cave drawings from prehistoric cultures and was explored by Coronado located: Great Plains in the Panhandle
49. Big Bend National Park and the Davis Mountains located: Mountains and Basins
50. Rio Grande located: Southwest Texas; from El Paso to Brownsville – border between Texas/US and Mexico
51. Sabine River East Texas – border between Texas and Louisiana
52. Red River North Texas – border between Texas and Oklahoma/Arkansas
Eras are characterized by: events, people, and/or conditions that mark a period of time or the beginning of a period of change
typical characteristics of an era include categories of economic, social, cultural, intellectual, political, military and/or diplomatic change or influence
Historical eras are in chronological order
Natural Texas era: describes geography of Texas including four natural regions; agriculture; points of interest
Age of Contact era: includes Prehistoric cultures; Native Americans in Texas; Spanish explorers
Spanish Colonial era: establishment and purpose of the missions; converting of the Native Americans and their culture; closing of the mission/presidio system; filibusters; early approval of colonization of American Anglos
Mexican National era: empresario system and the arrival of American Anglos into Tejas (Texas); conflicts of cultural differences; Mier y Teran’s report; Decree of April 6, 1830; early skirmishes between Anglos and Mexican government
Revolution era: Imprisonment of SFA; Santa Anna’s dictatorship; declaration of war through Battle of San Jacinto
1st flag of Texas Spain 1519 -1821
2nd flag of Texas France 1685 – 1690
3rd flag of Texas Mexico 1821 - 1836
Created by: chriscolum04



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