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WGU BIOCHEM Module 5

lipids

the bulk of lipids structure is ______________ and _____________ hydrocarbon; nonpolar
fatty acids have 2 main components: a _____________ acid & a ____________ "tail" carboxylic; hydrocarbon
________________ are the main energy storage molecule in the body and are stored in _____________ tissue triglycerides; adipose
___________ fatty acids (like in whole milk) remain liquid even in the fridge short-chain
a fatty acid in which each carbon in the hydrocarbon chain is bound to 4 atoms is called saturated fatty acid
unsaturated fatty acids contain one or more pairs of carbons that are not saturated with ______________ atoms hydrogen
describe alpha bond, beta bond, omega-3 bond alpha and beta are the first and second bonds in a fatty acid chain, respectively. omega is the last, so omega-3 is third from last
a fatty acid containing one double bond in its carbon chain is called a ______________________ monounsaturated fatty acid
explain cis configuration in most unsaturated fatty acids found in nature, they have both hydrogen atoms on the same side of the double bond. the asymmetry forces a kink or bend in the carbon chain, making it difficult to pack together
explain trans configuration when the hydrogen atoms are on opposite sides of the double bond ( a trans fatty acid); they can pack tightly and have higher melting points
triglycerides are created in _________________ reactions dehydration
fatty acids may be _______________ to produce ATP oxidized
how is phospholipid structure different from triglyceride structure both have a glycerol backbone; but phospholipids have two fatty acids and a phosphate group (instead of 3 fatty acids)
the fatty-acid end of a phospholipid is ________________, where as th phosphate end is ________________ lipid-soluble (hydrophobic); water-soluble (hydrophilic)
phospholipids are ________________ molecules because they are both lipid-soluble and water-soluble amphipathic
phospholipids have the appropriate geometry to form ______________, whereas fatty acids and triglycerols do not bilayers
in addition to the formation of the cellular membranes, ______________ also form micelles phospholipids
micelles have a fat-soluble center surrounded by a coating of ________________ and polar head groups bile acids
________ help facilitate the absorption of lipids, including dietary fats, into the mucosal cells of the small intestine micelles
_____________ are lipids with four hydrocarbon rings, such as cholesterol and steroid hormones sterols
____________ vitamins are zoo isoprenoid structures with various important roles in the body fat soluble
_____________ are hormones that act locally to regulate pain, fever, inflammation, blood pressure, etc eicosanoids
the acid portion of a fatty acid corresponds to the _________ group COOH
saturated fatty acids have more _________ than unsaturated fatty acids of the same length hydrogen atoms
carbon can form ____ bonds 4
the fatty acid chains that make up the phospholpids are the basis for their non-polar character and the ___________ is the basis of its polar nature phosphate group
___________ is the starting material to manufacture fatty acids acetyl-CoA
lipids are absorbed in the body by __________ and are transported in the form of _________________ micelles; lipoproteins
fatty acids are catabolized by ____________________ in the mitochondria of cells beta oxidation
beta oxidation produces _____________ molecules that can enter cellular respiration acetyl-CoA
fats are digested by enzymes known as ____________ that convert the triglycerides to smaller components lipases
acetyl-CoA produced by beta oxidation can also be converted to _________ bodies for energy ketone
in ____________, body relies on fat for its energy and increases the rate of beta-oxidation to produce acetyl-CoA ketosis
each round of beta-oxidation results in the production of a two-carbon acetyl-CoA unit, so the number of carbons in a fatty acid chain divided by ____ is how many acetyl-CoA units are made 2
the number of rounds of beta-oxidation needed is ____ less than the number of acetyl-Coaunits produced because the last round produces 2 1
______________ is a precursor for the synthesis of fatty acids acetyl-CoA
fatty acid synthesis occurs in the _________ cytosol
acetyl-CoA is combined with carbon dioxide with the help of biotin in order to form _______________ in the first step of fatty acid synthesis malonyl-CoA
essential fatty acids are ____________ fatty acids polyunsaturated
which lipid has a 4-ring structure sterol
fasting can increase the rate of __________________ beta oxidation
what is a hint that a chain will be liquid at the lowest temperature double bonds because they create bends and keep it from packing together tightly
each acetyl coA has ______ carbons 2
how many rounds of beta oxidation are needed to break down a fatty acid with 18 carbons 8; because it can be broken down into 9 two-carbon molecules, which requires 8 rounds
beta oxidation involves breaking the _______ bond beta
_______ converts some unsaturated fatty acids into saturated fatty acids hydrogenation
Created by: kinseycharles