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Carbohydrate Metabolism

__________________ pathways are building pathways in which new larger molecules are made from smaller molecules anabolic
________________ pathways are breakdown pathways, in which larger molecules are broken down into smaller molecules catabolic
_____________________ is the main molecule used to provide energy to metabolic pathways in the cell adenosine triphosphate (atp)
metabolism creation and destruction of molecules
the series of biochemical reactions needed to go from a raw material to the final product metabolic pathway
"genesis" to make or form
"lysis" to break
glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids broken down in the presence of oxygen to produce CO2 and H20. releasing energy that is used to add a phosphate group to adenosine diphosphate (dap) to form atp. this catabolic pathway is called ______________ cellular respiration
without available oxygen, only ____________ can be used to produce ATP glucose
when oxygen is available, glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids can all be broken down to yield two-carbon units that form a molecule called ______________ acetyl-CoA
to form acetyl-CoA from glucose, the glucose must first be split in half by a pathway in the cell cytosol called _____________ glycolysis
to from acteyl-Coa from fatty acids, the carbon chains are broken into two-carbon units by a pathway in the mitochondria called ________________ beta-oxidation
in the __________________ cycle or ____________ cycle, the two carbons of acetyl-CoA are removed one at a time, forming CO2, releasing electrons, and indirectly generating a small amount of ATP citric acid; krebs
the ________________ consists of a series of molecules that accept electrons from the shuttling molecules and pass them from one to another electron transport chain
a molecule that loses an electron is said to be ____________ and one that gains an electron is said to be ______________ oxidized, reduced
oxidative phosphorylation generates the majority of all ATP and is the culminating process of cellular respiration
when oxygen accepts electrons, it is reduced and forms a molecule of _________ water
glycogen is a storage form of _________________ carbohydrate
carbohydrate formula C(x) H(2x) O(x)
3 monosaccharides glucose, fructose, galactose
3 disaccharides sucrose, lactose, maltose
3 complex polysaccharides starches, cellulose, glycogen
______ transporters have a strong affinity for binding glucose and allowing it entry into the cell by a process known as ________________ GluT; facilitated diffusion
glycolysis is when a six-carbon molecule is broken down into two three-carbon _____________ molecules pyruvate
glycolysis pathway results in the net production of two _______ and two __________ molecules ATP; NADH
______________ from glycolysis is converted to a two-carbon molecule called ______________ in the matrix of the mitochondria pyruvate; acetyl-CoA
the citric acid cycle is 8 enzymatic reactions that convert _______________ to _______ and transfers the electrons to the electron carrying molecules __________ and _____________ acetyl-CoA; CO2; NADH; FADH2
__________________ is the branch point for aerobic and anaerobic catabolism of glucose pyruvate
when oxygen is not present, pyruvate is converted to lactate via ______________ and enters the cori cycle fermentation
________________ takes excess pyruvate and converts it back into glucose for transport or storage gluconeogenesis
the _______________ provides for a continuous supply of glucose to tissues that require it as their primary energy source, such as RBCs cori cycle
____ molecules of ATP are needed for gluconeogenesis to occur, while only ____ ATP are produced by glycolysis. this means that the cori cycle results in a net loss of ____ ATP per glucose molecule 6; 2; 4
_______________ is the process by which glucose is formed from noncarbohydrates (amino acids, lactate, etc) gluconeogenesis
glycogen stores carbohydrates
the hormone __________ stimulates liver and skeletal muscle cells to carry out glycogenesis, the synthesis of glycogen insulin
the process of splitting glycogen into its glucose subunits is called ______________ glycogenolysis
2 main hormones that control blood glucose levels insulin and glucagon
insulin is produced in the ______ cells of the pancreas and is released in response to __________ blood glucose levels beta; increased
glucagon is produced in the ________ cells of the pancreas and is released in response to _______ blood glucose levels alpha; low
insulin stimulates the uptake and storage of ___________ from the blood. This results in __________ glycogenesis as well as fatty acid synthesis glucose; increased
glucagon stimulates the production of ________________ via __________________ by the liver as well as fatty acid and amino acid catabolism for energy glucose; gluconeogenesis
type 1 diabetes autoimmune disease in which the immune system destroys pancreatic beta cells, thus impairing insulin production
type 2 diabetes insulin resistance
______________ is the reaction in which a covalent bond forms between a sugar molecule and a protein or lipid molecule without the aid of an enzyme; makes it more stiff and inflexible glycation
glycation leads to ______ that contribute to disease like arterial hardening, retinopathy, and neuropathy AGEs (advanced glycogen end products)
the glycated form of hemoglobin is called _________ A1C
the percentage of A1C under normal conditions is usually less than _____% of hemoglobin 5%
______________ works by inhibition of gluconeogensis and increasing translocation of GluT4 transporters to cellular membranes metformin
reduction in liver gluconeogenesis, caused by metformin, can help lower blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes, however it can also increase the risk of _____________________ lactic acidosis
during lactic acidosis, hemoglobin is more likely to _________ oxygen release
the polysaccharide cellulose is composed of sugar monomers linked through ___________ linkages, with either CH2OH groups in ________ direction relative to the neighboring monomer beta; opposite
glycolysis produces two ATP molecules through __________________ substrate level phosphorylation
what process is shared between anaerobic and aerobic metabolism? glycolysis
which process is stimulated when glucagon is released into the bloodstream glycogenolysis
which process is stimulated when insulin is released into the bloodstream glycogenesis
the largest source of energy storage in the normal human body is ____________ in ______________ tissue triglycerides; adipose
aerobically metabolized glucose produces ______ ATP via glycolysis, substrate level phosphorylation, and oxidative phosphorylation 30
electron transport chain takes place in the inner membrane of the __________ mitochondria
Created by: kinseycharles
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