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AP World Chapter 13


mercantilism the belief in benfitting from profitable trade, commercialism
bullion gold or silver in bulk before coining or valued by weight
colony a country or area under the full or partial political control of another country, typically a distant one, and occupied by settlers from that country
encomienda a grant by the Spanish Crown to a colonist in America conferring the right to demand tribute and forced labor from the Indian inhabitants of an area.
hacienda a large estate or plantation with a dwelling house.
castas was a hierarchical system of race classification created by Spanish elites
peninsulares any of the colonial residents of Latin America from the 16th through the early 19th centuries who had been born in Spain
creoles a person of mixed European and black descent, especially in the Caribbean.
mestizo a man of mixed race, especially the offspring of a Spaniard and an American Indian.
mulatto a person of mixed white and black ancestry, especially a person with one white and one black parent.
plantation an estate on which crops such as coffee, sugar, and tobacco are cultivated by resident labor.
settler colonies a form of colonial formation whereby foreign people move into a region. An imperial power oversees the immigration of these settlers who consent, often only temporarily, to government by that authority.
the cossacks Cossacks were a group of predominantly East Slavic-speaking people who became known as members of democratic, self-governing, semi-military communities, sent to the East
peter the great Peter the Great ruled the Tsardom of Russia. westernization, builds a navy, moved capital, dress
siberia Siberia is a vast Russian province encompassing most of Northern Asia, with terrain spanning tundra, coniferous forest and mountain ranges
westernization a process whereby societies come under or adopt Western culture in areas such as industry, technology, law etc.
czar an emperor of russia, russian word for ceasar
ivan iii Ivan the Great was the first ruler of Russia
ivan iv Ivan the terrible, son of Ivan III his rule became increasingly oppressive. he is mean and kills people who oppose him
boyars a member of the old aristocracy in Russia, next in rank to a prince
akbar i was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605
ulama a body of Muslim scholars recognized as having specialist knowledge of Islamic sacred law and theology.
jizya yearly tax historically levied by Islamic states on certain non-Muslim subjects
mamluk yearly tax historically levied by Islamic states on certain non-Muslim subjects
sati a former practice in India whereby a widow threw herself onto her husband's funeral pyre.
janissary a member of the Turkish infantry forming the Sultan's guard between the 14th and 19th centuries
treaty of tordesillas agreement between Spain and Portugal aimed at settling conflicts over lands newly discovered or explored by Christopher Columbus and other late 15th-century voyagers.
Created by: mdibble003
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