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Sociology Quiz 1

QuestionAnswer
Auguste Comte coined the term Sociology; shaped and expand sociology; believed theoretical science of society and systematic investigation of behavior were need to improve society
Karl Max the communist manifesto; working class should overthrow the existing class; emphasized group identifications and associations that influence an individuals place in society
Herbert Spencer Darwinism-concept of evolution applies to society, survival of the fittest, its natural for some people to be rich and some to be poor
Emile Durkheim Father of Sociology; made sociology a science; worked on suicide and how society functions and regulates itself
Max Weber verstehen-insight or understanding; ideal type- a construct or model for evaluating specific cases; value free, objective sociology
Harriet Martineau writer-writings emphasized the impact that the economy, law, trade, health, and population could have on sociological; gender roles
Charles Horton Cooley sociological perspective to look at smaller units; small groups are the seed beds of society-they shape peoples beliefs, values, ideals, and social nature-we learn who we are by interacting with others
Jane Addams goal of assisting the underprivileged and creating a more equalitarian society; successfully prevented racial segregation in Chicago public schools
Robert Merton produced a theory of different ways in which people attempt to achieve success in life; crime is only used to achieve goals
Erving Goffman dramaturgical approach- people are theatrical performers, you will act differently in different places in daily lives we try to convey distinct impressions of who we are
George Herbert Mead interectionist perspective- sociological framework-human beings are viewed as living in a world of meaningful objects theory of the self, as people mature their selves begin to reflect their concern about reactions form others
conflict perspective assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of tension between groups over power or the allocation of resources
functionalist perspective emphasizes the the way in which parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability
interactionist perspective generalize about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole
applied sociology use of discipline for sociology with the specific intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organizations
basic sociology seeks more profound knowledge of the fundamental aspects of social phenomena
clinical sociology dedicated to facilitating change by altering social relationships or restructuring social institutions
manifest function institutions are open stated and conscious functions
latent function unconscious or unintended functions that may reflect hidden purposes of an institution
dysfunciton refers to an element or process of a society that may actually disrupt the social system or reduce stability
scientific method defining a problem, reviewing the literature, formulating a hypothesis, selecting the research design and collecting and analyzing data, drawing a conclusion
qualitative research relies on what is seen in field and naturalistic settings; focus on small groups and communities
quantitative research collects and reports data primarily in numerical form
value nuetrality when investigators have an ethical obligation to accept research findings even when the data run counter to their personal views
validity refers to the degree to which a measure or scale truly reflects the phenomenon under study
reliability refers to the extent at which a measure produces consistent results
culture totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects and behavior
society a fairly large number of people who live in the same territory independent from outsiders and common customs
culture industry the worldwide media industry that standardizes the goods and services demanded by consumers
innovation the process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture through discovery or invention
discovery the process of making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality
material culture the physical or technical aspects of our daily lives
nonmaterial culture ways of using material objects, customs, beliefs, philosophies, governments, and patterns of communication
value a collective concept of what is considered good, desirable, and proper/worn in a culture
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis the role of language in shaping our interpretation of reality/expierences
dorminant ideology a set of cultural beliefs and practices that helps to maintain a powerful social, economic, and political interest
norm a established standard of behavior maintained by society
formal norm a norm that has been written down and that specifies strict punishments for violators
informal norm a norm that is generally understood but not precisely recorded
mores norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society
folkway a norm governing everyday behavior
sanction a penalty or reward for conduct securing a social form
subculture a segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of customs, rules and traditions
argot specialized language used by members of a group or subculture
counterculture a subculture that deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culture
culture shock the feeling of surprise and disorientation that people experience when they encounter cultural practices that are different from their own
etnocentrism the tendency to assume that ones culture and way of life are the norm or superior way of life
cultural relativism the viewing of peoples behavior from the perspective of their own culture
cultural universals a common practice or belief found in every culture
invention the combination of existing cultural items into a form that did not exist before
sociobiology the scientific study of the biological aspects of social behavior in animals and humans
stages of the self preparatory: children imitate the people around them play: children pretend to be other people game: children play roles but consider several tasks and relationships simultaneously
impression management the altering of the presentation of the self in order to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences (Goffman)
significant other an individual who is most important in the development of the self, such as a parent, friend, or teacher (Mead)
generalized other the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole that a child takes into account in his or her behavior (Mead)
degradation ceremony an aspect of the socialization process within some total institutions, in which people are subjected to humiliating rituals
looking-glass self a concept that emphasizes the self as the product of our social interactions (Cooley)
socialization process of how people learn the attitudes, values, and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture
resocialization the process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as a part of a transition in one's life
facework the efforts people make to maintain the proper image and avoid public embarrassment
rite of passage a ritual marking the symbolic transition from one social position to another
Created by: hassa