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Ancient Greece

VA SOLs for World History to 1500

Area of Greek studyElaboration and Details
Geography: Bodies of Water: Aegean Sea, Black Sea, Medditerranean Sea, Dardanelles
Geography: Cities: Athens, Sparta, Troy, Marathon, Ionia, Byzantium
Geography: Regions: Asia Minor, Peloponnesian peninsula, Macedonia, Crete, Persian Empire
Soc./ Econ.: Agriculture: Limited arable land, much coastal area, fishing, seafarers
Soc./ Econ.: Commerce: Trading by sea, painted vases used to transport
Social/ Economic Greeks switched from bartering to coins
Geography mountains provided protection for cities, but hindered expansion
Cities designed to promote civic and commercial life
Expansion many colonies: due to overpopulation and multiple islands
Mythology polytheistic, deities like humans, but with superhuman powers, offered explanations for natural phenomena, human qualities, and life events, key deities: Zeus, Hera, Apollo, Aphrodite, Artemis, Athena; depicted in Western Art as well as Greek art
Politics rich, free men were citizens (later expanded to all free men); citizens had the responsibility of civic participation in government; women and foreigners had no rights; slaves had no rights
Athenian Gov't. stages of gov't. evolution: monarchy> aristocracy> tyrrany> democracy; Tyrants who worked for democratic reform: Draco, Solon; Origin of democratic principles: direct democracy, public debate, duties of the citizens
Spartan Gov't. oligarchy (ruled by a small group); rigid social structure; militaristic and aggressive society
Persian Wars (499-449 BC) Persian wars united Athens and Sparta against Persia; Athenian victories at Marathon and Salamis left Greece in control of Aegean Sea; Athens preserved independence and continued innovations in gov't. and culture
Peloponnesian Wars (431-404 BC) caused by competition for control of the Greek world-- Athens & Delian League vs. Sparta; results- weakening that left Greece open to invasion from Macedonia
Phillip II king of Macedonia, conquered most of Greece, Alexander the Great's father, murdered
Alexander the Great established empire from Greece to Egypt to the edge of India; exteneded Greek cultural influences; tutored by Aristotle- 4 years; general of Philip's armies at 16; leader of Greece at 20; died at 30- malaria; meshed Persian, Greek, and Macedonian culture
Hellenistic Age blend of Greek and oriental elements, spread of Hellenistic culture through trade
Golden Age of Pericles Pericles extended democracy- free men had equal voice; rebuilt Athens after Persian wars- included commision of Parthenon
Drama Aeschylus, Sophocles, & Euripides= tragedy; Aristophenes= comedy
Poetry Homer: Iliad and Odyssey
History Herodotus- believed in influence by gods; Thucydides- wrote factual, scientific accounts
Architecture columns- Ionic (small curl), Doric (v. plain), Corinthian (fancy); Parthenon: perception- stairs lower in middle to appear flat from a distance, colums fatter in middle
Science & Math Archimedes (bathtub scientist), Hippocrates (doctor, hygiene); Euclid (father of geometry); Eratosthenes (estimated Earth's circumference within 1% correct); Pythagoras
Philosophy Plato, Socrates, Aristotle, Sophists, Zeno & Stoicism
Created by: moodystu