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SS Chapter 8

Vocab,War of 1812,SC Class Systems,"King Cotton",Antebellum SC, Important People

The Planter Class -prosperous; owned several hundred acres -owned at least 20 slaves -excellent education opportunities
White Middle Class -artisans and mechanics -owned their own small farms (yeoman) -small house, some animals, a couple barns or sheds -grew cotton to sell and grew their own food to eat
Poor Whites Class -didn't own land -worked for low wages on someone else's farm -lowly, menial jobs in town -lived in shacks -children might have to depend on charity
Slaves and Servants Class -fastest growing class in cotton kingdom -had no land; not paid to work -grew cotton, made tools, baskets, clothes, and cooked food -creating family was important -religion was a refuge and comfort
Pioneer one who is the 1st to go into a new area, usually with hardships and risks
Who defeated the Indians in the Battle of Fallen Timbers, and what did this allow? General Anthony Wayne defeated the Indians, allowing westward expansion
Who made the Wilderness Road and where did it go? Daniel Boone; Through the Cumberland Pass and to the western territories
What state and town is Daniel Boone famous for creating? Kentucky and the town of Boonesborough
Who is known as the "Father of Tennessee"? John Sevier
What were the 1st two western states to enter the Union? Kentucky and Tennessee
Conestoga Wagon covered wagon used on poor roads (muddy and snowy)
Flatboats helped settlers go easily over shallow water; can be torn apart and sold as lumber
National Road built by Federal government to connect the East to the western territories
Who owned New Orleans before the Louisiana Purchase? France
Why was it important for the US to own Louisiana? So the US would be able to ship goods by way of the Mississippi River and down to the Gulf of Mexico
Who made the Louisiana Purchase, and how much did it cost? Thomas Jefferson; $15 Million
Who was sent to explore the Louisiana territory? Meriwether Lewis and William Clark
What states (or parts of states) were formed from the Louisiana Purchase? Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, and parts of North Dakota, Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado
What were the two basic causes of the War of 1812? -a lack of freedom of the seas(Britain forced American sailors to work on their ships; impressment) -Indians of the Northwest(British traded guns and weapons to Indians to use against settlers moving west)
During the War of 1812, the Americans were most successful where? Lake Champlain and Lake Erie
Where was the "Star Spangled Banner" written and by whom? After the battle at Fort McHenry in Baltimore by Francis Scott Key
What battle did the US win after the Treaty of Ghent was signed? Battle of New Orleans
Who was Henry Clay? young "War Hawk" (supports the war) from Kentucky; senator
Who was John C. Calhoun? "War Hawk" came to Congress from South Carolina; outspoken
Who was Daniel Webster? young Congressman from Massachusetts; against the war and wanted negotiation
Who was Oliver H. Perry? commanded the American fleet on Lake Erie
Who won fame in the Battle of New Orleans? Andrew Jackson
Who was president of the US in 1812? James Madison
What was the nickname given to the good ship "Constitution"? "Old Ironsides"
What is Andrew Jackson's nickname? Old Hickory
Account of the writing of the "Star Spangled Banner" Francis Scott Key wrote it after Fort McHenry, later added music then turned into a song, eventually made national anthem
How did cotton production affect slaves? A need for slave labor increased
Who invented the cotton gin and how did it affect the way cotton was produced in SC? Eli Whitney; enabled the Upcountry to produce short-fiber cotton easily
In 1821, what percentage of SC's production was cotton? 29% (1/2 of all the cotton grown in the US each year back then)
What resulted in farmers not taking care of the soil? It was overworked and unfertilized, causing farmers to move West and start over
How did the price of cotton fluctuate during the 1820s? price went down along with SC's prosperity
Blue Laws restricted activities on Sunday; buying and selling, playing games and sports, and nonessential work were illegal on Sundays
Who from Charleston, SC became a nationally known architect? Robert Mills
What public buildings in Washington, DC were designed by Robert Mills? Treasury Building, the Patent Office, and the Washington Monument
What is a diverse economy and who argued for it in SC? a mix of agriculture, industry, commerce, and banking; William Gregg
William Gregg opened the first major what in SC? Cotton Mill/ Textile Factory
Other than textiles, what other industries were popular? Pottery, Gold Mining, and Railroad Industry
Nationalism sense of pride in one's country, its people, its institutions, and government
Why was nationalism so strong in the mid-1800s? American ships were attacked by Great Britain and France, bringing Americans closer together
What are internal improvements and what do they consist of? government projects to improve transportation and trade; building roads, bridges, and canals, and improving harbors
Sectionalism allegiance to one region of the country as opposed to loyalty to the broader interests of the whole country
Yeoman farmers small landowning farmer
Camp Meeting religious and social event emerging from the Second Great Awakening where hundreds gathered for several days, lived in tents or small shacks, and participated in numerous worship services
States' Rights belief that rights and powers of the states are more important than the rights and powers of the federal government
Mill Village a company-owned cluster of housing near a mill or factory
Protective Tariffs duty on imports that is high enough to protect American manufactured goods from competition from cheaper foreign good
Nullify to declare a law invalid and of no effect
Secession dissolving a state's connection to the nation and becoming a separate nation
Textile thread, yarn, cloth, and clothes
Deference respect
Duel a fight with weapons between two people, following strict rules
Factors brokers
Menial lowly
Naturalist a person who studies plants and animals, often as an amateur
Currency money
Abominable horrible, detestable
Ironic an unexpected outcome
Secessionists those who wanted to withdraw from the Union
Martyr a person who suffers or dies for a cause
Created by: logan...
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