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Final Review-Nuke

QuestionAnswer
The __________________ refers to the indirect but hostile conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union that began at the end of World War II. Cold War
This group consisted entirely of Eastern European nations and was dependent on and dominated by the Soviet Union. satellite nations; Warsaw Pact
Billions of dollars in economic aid was provided to many foreign nations as part of the ____________ Marshall Plan
The defensive alliance known as ____________ was the first military alliance that the United States ever entered during peacetime. North Atlantic Treaty Organization
President Truman fired General MacArthur in response to ______________ MacArthur’s public criticism of Truman
The _________ became an important dividing line between North and South Korea. 38th parallel
Accusations that communism was widely present in the U.S. government and military were made by Senator _____________ Joseph McCarthy
When the Soviet Union exploded an atomic bomb, the United States responded by ________. building the Hydrogen bomb
_________ was the name of the first artificial satellite to orbit the Earth. Sputnik I
Who wrote a book of advice on child-rearing that sold 10 million copies in the 1950s? Benjamin Spock
Who were the braceros? Mexican workers who came to the U.S. during WWII
What was the termination policy? a failed federal program directed at Native Americans
Who developed the first effective vaccine against polio? Jonas Salk
The two candidates for president in the 1960 election were _________ and _________. John Kennedy; Richard Nixon
True or False: John F. Kennedy came from a wealthy and politically experienced family. True
True or False: John F. Kennedy served as Congressman from 1946-1952. True
True or False: John F. Kennedy served as Vice-President before becoming President. False
True or False: John F. Kennedy served as Senator from 1952-1960. True
True or False: John F. Kennedy won a Pulitzer for his book Profiles in Courage . True
True or False: John F. Kennedy was the first Catholic elected President. True
True or False: John F. Kennedy was the youngest elected President at the age of 43 True
____________ was the Communist dictator of Cuba from 1959-2016. Fidel Castro
The _________ was a failed invasion of Cuba that attempted to start an uprising to overthrow Castro in April of 1961. Bay of Pigs
The _____________ ended when Khrushchev agreed to remove missiles from Cuba in exchange for America’s promise not to invade Cuba. Cuban missile crisis
The ____________ crisis began when Khrushchev threatened to sign a treaty with East Germany that would close all access roads to West Berlin. Berlin
The Soviet cosmonaut, ________ , became the first human in space. Yuri Gagarin
_________ was the first man to set foot on the moon. Neil Armstrong
Michael Harrington’s book ________ showed that 42 million Americans lived in poverty. The Other America
_________ was arrested for the assassination of JFK. Lee Harvey Oswald
True or False: Lyndon Johnson served in both the House and the Senate. True
True or False: Lyndon Johnson served as Senate Majority Leader. True
True or False: Johnson served as Vice-President under John F. Kennedy. True
True or False: Johnson was a Boston liberal from Massachusetts. False
The __________ signed into law by Johnson prohibited discrimination based on race, religion, national origin, and gender. Civil Rights Act of 1964
The Court stated in the case _______ that police must read suspects their rights before questioning. Miranda v. Arizona
In __________ , the Court ruled that separate schools for whites and blacks was illegal. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
President ________ sent in federal troops to force the integration of Central High School in Little Rock. Dwight D. Eisenhower
Who led the team of lawyers in the Brown case and later went on to become the first African American Supreme Court justice? Thurgood Marshall
Who was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on the bus to a white man? Rosa Parks
Who was the first African American to attend the University of Mississippi? James Meredith
Who became the first African American woman elected to the House of Representatives? Shirley Chisholm
_________ was a pastor who was chosen to lead the Montgomery Bus Boycott, gave the famous “I Have a Dream” speech at the March on Washington, and won the Nobel Peace Prize for his civil rights efforts. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
__________ studied the teachings of Elijah Muhammad, openly preached that blacks should separate from whites, and called for “armed self-defense,” but changed his thinking later on and called for African Americans to choose “Ballots or bullets." Malcolm X
The _________ banned discrimination in the renting or selling of housing. Civil Rights Act of 1968
The _______ eliminated voter literacy tests and enabled federal examiners to register voters. Voting Rights Act of 1965
The ________ prohibited discrimination because of race, religion, national origin, and gender in most employment and public accommodations and created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Civil Rights Act of 1964
What was the United States’ main goal in Vietnam? the containment of communism
What act authorized President Johnson to conduct the war in Vietnam? the Tonkin Gulf Resolution
Who served as the commander of U.S. troops in Vietnam? General William Westmoreland
What policy did President Nixon say would bring about “peace with honor” in Vietnam? the Vietnamization of the war
What event or action was most effective in leading the American public to conclude that the war was unwinnable? the Tet offensive
The main purpose of the War Powers Act was to _______________ restrict the power of the president to wage war
Name the two men who served as Secretary of Defense under Johnson Robert McNamara and Clark Clifford
Who was the Communist leader of North Vietnam? Ho Chi Minh
Who was the Vietnamese leader who launched the strategic hamlet program? Ngo Dinh Diem
What was the name given to the National Liberation Front by its opponents? Vietcong
_________________________ was Nixon’s chief National Security advisor, represented the U.S. at the Paris peace talks, and won the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts. Henry Kissinger
What year did the last U.S. troops leave Vietnam? 1973
Approximately __________ American troops died in Vietnam. 58,000
What were Nixon’s beliefs about the size and influence of government ? Had a plan called New Federalism which was to distribute a portion of federal power to state and local governments
Nixon’s law and order policies included what sort of illegal activities? Using the FBI to illegally wiretap the Democratic Party offices; Using the CIA to investigate and compile documents on thousands of people who objected to the government’s policies; Using the IRS to audit tax returns of antiwar and civil rights activists
Between 1967 and 1973, the U.S. faced stagflation. What is stagflation? High unemployment and high inflation
What was realpolitik? Foreign policy should be based solely on consideration of power, as only strong nations matter
Nixon’s policy aimed at easing Cold War tensions was called ___________ détente
What was Nixon’s policy toward China? Nixon visited China and opened up diplomatic and economic relations with the Chinese
What was the SALT I Treaty? a five-year agreement that limited the number of intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine-launched missiles held by the U.S. and the Soviet Union
Watergate refers to ______________ A scandal involving the Nixon’s administration’s attempt to cover up a burglary of the Democratic National Committee headquarters
What eventually happened to President Nixon? He resigned from office and he was granted a full pardon by President Gerald Ford
President Gerald Ford called on Americans to cut back on their use of oil and gas and to take other energy-saving measures in a program he called _______________ Whip Inflation Now (WIN)
What were the Helsinki Accords? This was a series of agreements that promised greater cooperation between the nations of Eastern and Western Europe.
What were the Camp David Accords? Who were the leaders and the countries involved? The agreement was signed by Prime Minister Menachem Begin of Israel and President Anwar el-Sadat of Egypt where Israel agreed to withdraw from the Sinai Peninsula and Egypt recognized Israel's right to exist
Who was the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini? Muslim religious leader of Iran, the country that took 52 Americans hostage in 1979.
Shortly after President _________ was sworn in on January 20, 1981, the Americans held hostage in Iran were finally released after 444 days in captivity. Ronald Reagan
This president was not elected to office, but was appointed VP and then he assumed the presidency when the president resigned due to scandal. Gerald Ford
This president was the first to visit to China and the Soviet Union. Richard Nixon
This president sought to use moral principles as a guide for U.S. foreign policy and believed that the U.S. needed to commit itself to promoting human rights. Jimmy Carter
He was president at the start of the Korean War. Harry Truman
He was president who lied about the Tonkin Gulf incident. Lyndon Johnson (LBJ)
He was president during the Cuban Missile Crisis. John F. Kennedy (JFK)
He was the president who resigned due to the Watergate scandal. Richard Nixon
He was president during the Iran Hostage Crisis. Jimmy Carter
The name of Kennedy’s legislative program was ____________. the New Frontier
The name of Truman’s legislative program was ____________. the Fair Deal
The name of Lyndon Johnson’s legislative program was _____.. the Great Society