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Academic Vocabulary

grievances  an official statement of a complaint over something believed to be wrong or unfair.
representation the action of speaking or acting on behalf of someone
civil disobedience  the refusal to comply with certain laws or to pay taxes and fines, as a peaceful form of political protest.
civic virtue  is morality or a standard of righteous behavior in relationship to a citizen's involvement in society
ratification the action of signing or giving formal consent to a treaty, contract, or agreement, making it officially valid.
bicameral  having two branches or chambers
due process fair treatment through the normal judicial system, especially as a citizen's entitlement.
judicial review review by the US Supreme Court of the constitutional validity of a legislative act.
federalism is a system of government in which entities such as states or provinces share power with a national government
unalienable rights life, liberty, and pursuit of  happiness 
domestic problems Of or relating to a country's internal affairs: domestic issues such as taxes.
political parties an organization of people who share the same views about the way power should be used
foreign policy a government's strategy in dealing with other nations
protective tariffs are tariffs that are enacted with the aim of protecting a domestic industry
embargo an official ban on trade or other commercial activity with a particular country.
Marbury v. Madison the Supreme Court announced for the first time the principle that a court may declare an act of Congress void if it is inconsistent with the Constitution.
debt Money, goods, or services owed by an individual, firm, or government to another individual, firm, or government
National Bank a commercial bank that is chartered under the federal government and is a member of the Federal Reserve System
Federalists a member of a former political party in the United States that favored a strong centralized federal government
Democratic‐Republicans  They believed that the Constitution was a "strict" document that clearly limited the powers of the federal government
Created by: lhurst



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