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Chapter 29

Nuremberg trials trials at an Allied military court that brought several dozen Nazi military leaders to justice for crimes committed during World War II
Cold War a post-World War II era of open hostility and high tension between the United States and the Soviet Union
iron curtain Winston Churchill's term for the division of Europe created by Soviet actions
Truman Doctrine U.S. pledge to provide economic and military aid to oppose the spread of communism
Marshall Plan a massive program of U.S. economic aid to help Western Europe make a rapid recovery from the war and remain politically stable
containment a policy of resisting Soviet aggression to contain the spread of communism
Berlin airlift a massive effort to supply West Berlin by air after the Soviets blockaded it
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization, a military alliance between the United States, Canada, and Western Europe designed to counter Soviet power in Europe
Warsaw Pact an alliance formed between the Soviet Union and the Communist nations of Eastern Europe
hydrogen bomb an immensely destructive weapon powered by nuclear fusion
deterrence the development of or maintenance of military power to deter an attack
arms race a struggle between nations to gain an advantage in weapons
Sputnik the world's first satellite, a human-made object launched in 1947 by the Soviet Union that flies in orbit around the Earth
Bay of Pigs invasion unsuccessful invasion of Cuba by a secretly trained force, which U.S. leaders believed would result in a massive uprising to overthrow Fidel Castro
Cuban missile crisis a tense standoff between the United States and the Soviet Union that occurred after the Soviets installed nuclear missiles in Cuba
nonaligned nations countries that refused to support either side during the Cold War and tried to promote the interest of the poorer countries
detente reduced tension between the superpowers
Martin Luther King Jr. leader of a civil rights campaign that exposed racial injustice and won reforms
counterculture a youth movement that rebelled against mainstream American society
Solidarity a movement of Polish workers who united to protest against the Communist government and Soviet control
Mikhail Gorbachev Soviet leader who came to power in 1985 and made changes in the nation's economy and government
glasnost "openness," a willingness to accept the problems of the Soviet Union
Velvet Revolution a peaceful revolution that removed Communists from power in Czechoslovakia
Boris Yeltsin leader of the republic of Russia who favored more radical change than Gorbachev did
ethnic cleansing elimination of an ethnic group through killing or forced emigration
Internet a system of networks that connects computers around the world
Saddam Hussain dictator of Iraq who invaded neighboring Kuwait in August 1990
Persian Gulf War war in which a UN-authorized multinational force led by the United States forced the Iraqi military to leave Kuwait
al Qaeda Islamic terrorist organization that launched a series of attacks against U.S. targets
Osama bin Laden al Qaeda leader who aims to unite Muslims and destroy the United States
Taliban Islamist government of Afghanistan that supported and protected members of al Qaeda
perestroika "restructuring," a concept for the reform of the Soviet economic and political system
Created by: tinsleylett