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World Geog. Final

Colonialism When a nation maintains or extends its control over foreign regions.
Berlin Conference In 1884-1885, the Europeans met and divided up Africa into colonies because of its natural resources.
Nile River One of the most important rivers in Africa that provides water for the people and to grow crops.
Infrastructure Basic support systems for an economy (power, communication, water, sanitation)
Genocide Deliberate destruction of an ethnic, racial, religious, or national group. Examples-Sudan, Rwanda, Kurds
Subsistence Agriculture People raise enough food or animals to meet their needs
Apartheid Policy of complete racial segregation or separation of the races in South Africa instituted by the white minority government.
AIDS/HIV a disease that has hindered the economic development in Africa
Cultural Diffusion The spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another. For example, religion and languages. Christianity began in Southwest Asia, but has diffused all over the world.
Himalaya Mountains It dominates the Indian subcontinent (South Asia). Acts as a large barrier between India and China.
Ganges River The most sacred (holy) river in India to Hindus. It provides water for farming and transportation of goods.
Globalization Technology (like computers and cell phones) have made the world more connected. This has led to a rapid increase in international trade. For example, US corporations make products in China, India, or Vietnam & then they ship them back to the US to sell.
Monsoon Seasonal wind that often brings heavy rains and flooding. In history, it influence trade between East Africa and India, especially when people used sailing ships.
Urbanization Dramatic rise in the number of cities and the changes in lifestyle that result. People move to the city looking for jobs.
Outsourced Companies replace workers in one country with those from another country who will work for lower wages.
Judaism The oldest monotheistic religion and dominate in Israel, Russia, and the US.
One Child Policy This was instituted in the 1970's in China because of the growing population.
Nuclear Proliferation This threatens world peace and could cause a WWIII. For example, India and Pakistan now have nuclear weapons.
Political Stability When a government is strong and organized, it has more ability to do things for its people - like build infrastructure, provide schools & hospitals
Income Gap When most the population of a place lives in poverty and a small minority is wealthy (rich) - includes their standard of living, like access to education, good jobs, health care, & housing.
Rural Farm areas and life in the country.
Sahara Desert Covering most of northern Africa, the Sahara Desert is the largest desert in the world. It divides Africa into 2 distinct cultural areas. North Africa is Muslim and south of the Sahara is Christian.
Caste System A system of social rank in Hinduism in which the only way to improve one's status was to die and be reincarnated into a higher caste.
Reincarnation From Hinduism—the belief that at death a person's soul is reborn as another living thing. An endless cycle of rebirth for each soul. .
Irrigation Bringing water to crops through canals, ditches, or very large sprinkler systems.
Desalinization The removal of salt from ocean water. Used in very dry (arid) regions, like Southwest Asia.
OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries ~ represents the majority of all oil producing countries in the world. Attempts to limit production to keep oil prices high.
Islam Monotheistic religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah), the Quran, praying 5 times a day, and pilgrimage to Mecca. Followers are called Muslims.
Nationalism A belief that people should be loyal to their nation, the people with whom they share land, culture, and history. Inspires many ethnic groups to try to have a country of their own - examples include the Palestinians and Kurds.
Monotheistic Belief in one god (Judaism, Christianity, Islam)
Polytheistic Belief in many gods (Traditional, Hinduism, Buddhism)
Communist economy Economic system in which almost everything is owned by the government. The government controls all natural resources, factories, and workers. It makes all economic decisions.
Free Market Economy Economic system in which the people, not the government, decide what will be produced (supply and demand). System is based on markets, private ownership, and individuals. Very little government involvement or interference
Free Enterprise Another name for Free Market or Capitalism
Iron Curtain A political barrier formed after WWII that divided Eastern Europe & the Soviet Union (the East) from Western Europe. Communism vs. Capitalism. Government control vs. freedom to make own decisions.
Cold War " War of words and threats" between the US and USSR from 1945-1990. It was a political and economic stuggle between these nations.
European Union Also known as the EU. Organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
North American Free Trade Agreement Free trade agreement among USA, Canada & Mexico. Goal = promote trade, economic prosperity & cooperation.
Desertification Change of fertile grassland into desert, especially in the Sahel. Happens because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
Traditional Economy Economic system in which decisions are based on customs and centered on family. Goods and services are exchanged without money - known as bartering. Happens in many places with subsistence agriculture.
Sub-Saharan Africa Africa south of the Saharan desert, the countries not part of North Africa.
Created by: weakstick
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