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Gilded Age

Westward Expansion, Urbanization, Industrialization

TermDefinition
AFL American Federation of Labor. A union of SKILLED workers from one or more trades which focused on collective bargaining (negotiation between labor and management) to reach written agreements on wages and working hours
Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone
American Dream The widespread belief that the United States is a land of opportunity and that individual initiative and hard work can bring economic success
Andrew Carnegie creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out of banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the “Robber Barons.”
Angel Island West coast immigration port where Asian immigrants, mostly Chinese, gained admission to the U.S. at San Francisco Bay. Questioning and conditions at Angel Island were much harsher than Ellis Island in New York.
Assimilation the social process of absorbing one cultural group into harmony with another
Big Business commercial enterprises organized and financed on a scale large enough to influence social and political policies
Black Codes laws passed in the south just after the civil war aimed at controlling freedmen and enabling plantation owners to exploit African American workers
Booker T. Washington African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African Americans better themselves individually to achieve equality
Boss Tweed Leader of the Democratic Tammany Hall, New York political machine
Captains of Industry company owners such as Carnegie and Rockefeller who some followers thought had a positive impact on the country in terms of business
Charles Darwin English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
Child labor Children were viewed as laborers throughout the 19th century. Many children worked on farms, small businesses, mills and factories
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 United States federal law passed on May 6, 1882, 10 year ban on all Chinese Immigration, after that banned unmarried Chinese laborers
Civil Service A system of hiring and promotion based on the merit principle and the desire to create a nonpartisan government service.
Corruption inducement (as of a public official) by improper means (as bribery) to violate duty (as by committing a felony)
Dawes Act Removed Indian land from tribal possession, re-divided it, and redistributed it to individual Indian families. Also sent Indian children to boarding schools. Designed to break tribal mentalities and promote Americanization.
Ellis Island an island in New York Bay that was formerly the principal immigration station for the United States
Entrepreneur a person who starts up and takes on the risk of a business
General Custer After the Civil War, Custer was dispatched to the West to fight in the Indian Wars, killed at the Battle of Little Big Horn
Gilded Age 1870s-1890s; time period looked good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics and growing gap between the rich and poor
Gold Rush a large migration of people to a newly discovered gold field
Graft the practice of offering something (usually money) in order to gain an illicit advantage
Grandfather Clause a clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors had voted before 1867
Homestead Act of 1862 This allowed a settler to acquire 160 acres by living on it for five years, improving it and paying about $30
Horizontal Alignment id the consolidation of holdings across multiple industries
Hull House Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty.
Ida B Wells African American journalist, published statistics about lynchings, urged African Americans to protest by refusing to ride streetcars or shop in white owned stores.
Indian Schools Created in order to forcibly assimilate Indian children to white culture. They cut their hair, converted them to Christianity, and forced them to change their language; used to make Indian children act like white Americans. (part of the Dawes Act)
Industrialization the development of industries for the machine production of goods
Jane Addams founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes
Jim Crow term for the racial segregation laws imposed in the 1890s
John D. Rockefeller Established the Standard Oil Company, the greatest, wisest, and meanest monopoly known in history
KKK (Ku Klux Klan) started right after Civil War, the Southern establishment took charge by passing discriminatory laws known as the black codes. Gives whites almost unlimited power. They masked themselves and burned black churches, schools, and terrorized black people.
Knights of Labor 1st effort to create National labor union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed after Haymarket Strike.
Laissez faire the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
Little Big Horn General Custer and his men were wiped out by a coalition of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse
Lynching putting a person to death by mob action without due process of law, usually by hanging
Monopoly exclusive control or possession of something
Nativism a policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
New Immigration 2nd major wave of immigration (1865-1910) 25 million New Immigrants came from Southern and Eastern Europe, language barriers and cultural differences produced mistrust by Americans. early immigrants were from Western and Northern Europe
Party Bosses party leaders, usually in an urban district, who exercised tight control over electioneering and patronage
Patronage (politics) granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support.
Philanthropy Charitable donation to public causes
Plessey v. Ferguson a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Political machine well organized political organization that controls election results by awarding jobs and other favors in exchange for votes
Poll tax a tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote
Populism the political doctrine the supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with privileged elite
Reservation land set aside by the U.S. government for Native Americans (American Indians)
Robber barons people who’d built fortunes by swindling investors and taxpayers, and bribing officials
Samuel Gompers U.S. labor leader (born in England) who was president of the AFL (American Federation of Labor) form 1886-1924
Segregation a social system that provides separate facilities for minority groups
de jure segregation by law – laws were in place in the South, keeping races separate
de facto segregation by way of life – neighborhoods in the North, priced out minorities, so people lived separately
Social Darwinism the application of ideas about evolution and “survival of the fittest” to human societies – particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion
Social Gospel movement led by Washington Gladden – taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization
Spoils System The practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs. President Andrew Jackson made this practice famous for the way he did it on a wide scale.
Telegraph machine invented by Samuel Morse in 1837 that used a system of dots and dashes to send messages across long distances electronically through a wire.
Telephone device for transmitting sound over long distances through wires patented in 1876; invented by Alexander Graham Bell and Elisha Gray
Tenements poorly built, overcrowded housing where many immigrants lived.
Transcontinental Railroad completed in 1869 at Promontory Point, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California’s railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west
Trusts legally formed combinations or corporations or companies
Unions organizations of workers who bargain with employers as a group
Urbanization the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban
Vertical Alignment a style of management control , vertically integrated companies in a supply chain are united through a common owner
W.E.B. DuBois 1st black to earn a Ph.D. from Harvard, encourages blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create to NAACP in 1910
Westward Expansion territorial acquisitions as settlers began moving westward beyond the Appalachian Mountains
Wounded Knee In 1890 after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded by Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered and only a baby survived
Created by: hekeler