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Colonial America, Independence, Constitution, Civil War (8th Grade)

primary source text that tells a first-hand account of an event; original works used when researching (journals, letters)
secondary source information gathered by someone who did not take part in or witness an event
bias a partiality that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation
political cartoon pictures, images, or drawings that make political statements of the day about current issues and events
GNP gross national product – the sum of all goods and services produced in a nation in a year
“All men are created equal” basic belief of the Declaration of Independence
“In God We Trust” U.S. Department of Treasury places this motto on U.S. currency/coins because of the increased religious sentiment existing during the Civil War, 1955 President Eisenhower made it law that all U.S. currency is required to have this motto
13th Amendment abolished slavery
14th Amendment declares that all person born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
15th Amendment citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude (black men can vote)
Abraham Lincoln 16th President of the U.S., saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; assassinated by Booth in 1865
Alexis de Tocqueville French political writer noted for his analysis of American institutions, wrote Democracy in America where he praised the U.S. for having 5 principles that make democracy work: individualism, liberty, egalitarianism, populism, laissez-faire
Ben Rush a doctor, scientist and published works about medicine and mental illness (signs D.O.I.)
Bill of Rights statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first 10 Amendments to the U.S. Constitution)
1st Amendment Freedom of speech, press, assembly, religion and petition
2nd Amendment Right to bear arms in order to form a militia
3rd Amendment No quartering of soldiers without consent
4th Amendment Protection from unreasonable searches and seizures
5th Amendment Protection of Rights to Life, Liberty and Property (double jeopardy, self-incrimination, due process and just compensation)
6th Amendment Rights of Accused in Criminal Cases (impartial jury, confront witnesses against you, legal counsel for defense)
7th Amendment Rights in Civil Cases (right to jury, one decision)
8th Amendment No Excessive Bail, Fines or Punishments
9th Amendment All Rights not listed kept by the People
10th Amendment Undelegated powers kept by the States and the People
Charles Carroll Catholic signer of the D.O.I. who showed patriotism
civil rights the rights of full citizenship and quality under the law
Declaration of Independence the document recording the proclamation of the 2nd Continental Congress (Jul 4, 1776) asserting the independence of the 13 colonies from Great Britain
E Pluribus Unum national motto of the U.S.A., “out of many, one”
Elizabeth Cady Stanton U.S. suffragist and feminist
Executive Orders regulations originating from the Executive Branch (President). Executive Orders are one method presidents can use to control the bureaucracy
Federal Government a government with strong central powers (ours is located in Washington, D.C.)
Frederick Douglas U.S. abolitionist who escaped from slavery and became an influential writer and lecturer in the North
John Hancock American revolutionary patriot who was president of the Continental Congress, signed the D.O.I.
John Jay U.S. diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as first chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court – helped write the Federalist Papers, letters to encourage ratification of the U.S. Constitution
John Peter Muhlenberg American clergyman, Continental Army soldier during the American Revolutionary War, served in the U.S. House of Representatives and U.S. Senate for Pennsylvania (founding father)
John Witherspoon American Revolutionary leader and educator (born in Scotland) who was a signer of the Declaration of Independence and president of the college that became Princeton University
Jonathan Trumbull, Sr. Governor of Connecticut; Trumbull was the only governor to support the position of the colonies. He had long been a supporter of colonial rights and during the war supplied General Washington with food, clothing, and munitions.
state government the government of a state in the United States
suffrage a legal right guaranteed by the 15th amendment for men and the 19th amendment for women
Susan B. Anthony social reformer who campaigned for women’s rights, the temperance movement, and was an abolitionist; helped form the National Women’s Suffrage Association
United States Constitution written at the Constitutional Convention in 1787 and ratified to replace Articles of Confederation, gave us 3 branches (bicameral legislative, executive and judicial); included 3/5 compromise; has been ratified 27 times throughout its history.
Created by: hekeler